Television
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Television - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Television Communications 233 Economics Advertising Local, national spot, national network Taxes (reception fees) Government support Subscription Decoder costs Categorical VHF vs. UHF Public vs. private Network affiliate vs. independent Cable vs. terrestrial Direct vs. cable

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Presentation Transcript
Television l.jpg

Television

Communications 233


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Economics

  • Advertising

    • Local, national spot, national network

  • Taxes (reception fees)

  • Government support

  • Subscription

  • Decoder costs


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Categorical

  • VHF vs. UHF

  • Public vs. private

  • Network affiliate vs. independent

  • Cable vs. terrestrial

  • Direct vs. cable


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Broadcast transmission

  • Microwave

  • Satellites

  • Wire transmission (cable)

  • Fiber optics

  • Direct Broadcast Satellites

  • Multichannel Distribution Service

  • Low-power TV


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Local vs. national

  • American broadcasting began as local radio stations

  • Later pulled together to form networks

  • Evolved into television networks


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Network affiliation

  • Local stations are generally affiliated with networks

  • Independents

  • Owned and Operated (O&O’s)


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Network affiliation

  • Produces content for local stations, who then get:

  • network advertising revenue

  • national spot advertising revenue

  • local advertising revenue


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Ownership of networks

  • NBC -- General Electric

  • CBS -- Westinghouse

  • ABC -- Disney

  • Fox -- Rupert Murdoch of News Corp.

  • WB -- Time Warner

  • UPN -- Viacom (Paramount) and Chris Craft/United


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Ownership patterns

  • Group ownership

  • Independently owned stations

  • Multiple system operators (cable)

  • Public TV stations


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Program development

  • Production companies

  • Syndication

    • Off-network programs

    • First-run syndication

    • Barter syndication


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Ratings

  • Households Using TV (HUT)

  • Rating (% of all households)

  • Share (% of HUT)


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Impact of TV on other media

  • Newspapers

    • Loss of evening papers

    • Loss of national advertising

    • Move toward visual design

    • Move toward interpretive reporting


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Impact of TV on other media

  • Movies

    • Demassification

    • Impact of TV and VCR on titles


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Impact of TV on other media

  • Recordings

    • Focus on music in terms how how it will show on MTV and similar channels

  • Radio

    • Demassification


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Impact of TV on other media

  • Magazines

    • Loss of national, undifferentiated advertising

    • Forced specialization


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Impact of TV on other media

  • Books

    • Change in use of discretionary time from reading to watching

    • Book manuscript as a screenplay and ultimately TV fare

    • Selection of authors in terms of their TV personalities


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Legal environment of broadcasting

  • Federal Communications Commission

  • Ownership of the airwaves

  • Content changes over time


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On the TV horizon

  • Digital television (high definition)

  • Growth in direct broadcast satellites

  • Expanded pay-per-view

  • Fragmenting audiences

  • Internet delivery


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Web site for digital TV

  • http://www.pbs.org/opb/crashcourse/

  • http://www.digitaltelevision.com/

  • http://www.howstuffworks.com/dtv.htm


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