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Television Communications 233 Economics Advertising Local, national spot, national network Taxes (reception fees) Government support Subscription Decoder costs Categorical VHF vs. UHF Public vs. private Network affiliate vs. independent Cable vs. terrestrial Direct vs. cable

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Presentation Transcript
television

Television

Communications 233

economics
Economics
  • Advertising
    • Local, national spot, national network
  • Taxes (reception fees)
  • Government support
  • Subscription
  • Decoder costs
categorical
Categorical
  • VHF vs. UHF
  • Public vs. private
  • Network affiliate vs. independent
  • Cable vs. terrestrial
  • Direct vs. cable
broadcast transmission
Broadcast transmission
  • Microwave
  • Satellites
  • Wire transmission (cable)
  • Fiber optics
  • Direct Broadcast Satellites
  • Multichannel Distribution Service
  • Low-power TV
local vs national
Local vs. national
  • American broadcasting began as local radio stations
  • Later pulled together to form networks
  • Evolved into television networks
network affiliation
Network affiliation
  • Local stations are generally affiliated with networks
  • Independents
  • Owned and Operated (O&O’s)
network affiliation7
Network affiliation
  • Produces content for local stations, who then get:
  • network advertising revenue
  • national spot advertising revenue
  • local advertising revenue
ownership of networks
Ownership of networks
  • NBC -- General Electric
  • CBS -- Westinghouse
  • ABC -- Disney
  • Fox -- Rupert Murdoch of News Corp.
  • WB -- Time Warner
  • UPN -- Viacom (Paramount) and Chris Craft/United
ownership patterns
Ownership patterns
  • Group ownership
  • Independently owned stations
  • Multiple system operators (cable)
  • Public TV stations
program development
Program development
  • Production companies
  • Syndication
    • Off-network programs
    • First-run syndication
    • Barter syndication
ratings
Ratings
  • Households Using TV (HUT)
  • Rating (% of all households)
  • Share (% of HUT)
impact of tv on other media
Impact of TV on other media
  • Newspapers
    • Loss of evening papers
    • Loss of national advertising
    • Move toward visual design
    • Move toward interpretive reporting
impact of tv on other media13
Impact of TV on other media
  • Movies
    • Demassification
    • Impact of TV and VCR on titles
impact of tv on other media14
Impact of TV on other media
  • Recordings
    • Focus on music in terms how how it will show on MTV and similar channels
  • Radio
    • Demassification
impact of tv on other media15
Impact of TV on other media
  • Magazines
    • Loss of national, undifferentiated advertising
    • Forced specialization
impact of tv on other media16
Impact of TV on other media
  • Books
    • Change in use of discretionary time from reading to watching
    • Book manuscript as a screenplay and ultimately TV fare
    • Selection of authors in terms of their TV personalities
legal environment of broadcasting
Legal environment of broadcasting
  • Federal Communications Commission
  • Ownership of the airwaves
  • Content changes over time
on the tv horizon
On the TV horizon
  • Digital television (high definition)
  • Growth in direct broadcast satellites
  • Expanded pay-per-view
  • Fragmenting audiences
  • Internet delivery
web site for digital tv
Web site for digital TV
  • http://www.pbs.org/opb/crashcourse/
  • http://www.digitaltelevision.com/
  • http://www.howstuffworks.com/dtv.htm
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