Status of the monkeypox mpxv outbreak in the united states
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Status of the Monkeypox (MPXV) Outbreak in the United States. PAHO Communicable Disease Unit. The etiological agent belongs to Family: Poxviridae Genus: Orthopoxvirus It shares genetic and biological properties with the smallbox and vaccinia viruses.

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Status of the monkeypox mpxv outbreak in the united states l.jpg

Status of the Monkeypox (MPXV) Outbreakin the United States

PAHO Communicable Disease Unit


General information on mpxv l.jpg

The etiological agent belongs to

Family: Poxviridae

Genus: Orthopoxvirus

It shares genetic and biological properties with the smallbox and vaccinia viruses.

Vaccination against smallpox will provide (at least partial) protection against monkeypox.

Prior to this outbreak in the USA, the virus had been identified only in Africa.

General Information on MPXV


Slide3 l.jpg

Smallpox and Its Eradication

Source: Fenner, F. et al. (1988) Smallpox and Its Eradication. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO).


General information on mpxv4 l.jpg
General Information on MPXV

  • Zoonosis: A virus of rodents and monkeys.

  • Human transmissionby handling or being bitten by an infected animal.

  • Incubation period: 7–21 days.

  • Fatality of 1-10%.

  • Person-to-person transmission relatively inefficient.


General information on mpxv cont d l.jpg
General Information on MPXV (cont’d)

  • Clinical profile similar to that of smallpox.

    • Rash (exanthema)

      • Stain, papule, vesicule, pustule, crust.

    • Fever

    • Respiratory symptoms

    • Lymphodenopathy

    • Sweating

    • Chills

    • Headache


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Index case in Marshfield, 26 May 2003:

Disseminated lesions.


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Distribution of MPXV Cases in the USA

(SE 25/2003)

Source:MMWR 52 (23), CDC, 2003.


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Distribution of MPXV Cases in the USA (cont’d)

WI

OH

IL

IN

KS

MO

Number of cases = 87

WI = 38

IN = 24

IL = 19

OH = 4

KS = 1

MO = 1

Source: MMWR 52 (23), CDC, 2003.


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Wild Animals Involved in MPXV Transmission (USA, 2003)

Gambian Giant Rat

(Crycetomys sp.)

Prairie Dog

(Cynomis sp.)


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Entry and Distribution Route of Crycetomys sp. and Cynomys sp. Involved in MPXV Outbreak (USA, 2003)

WI

IA

15/4

IL*

15/4

TX

*Prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.) enter into contact with Gambian Giant Rats (Crycetomys sp.)

09/04

Ghana

Source: MMWR 52 (23), CDC, 2003.


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Current Status of Outbreak in USA

  • Investigation underway.

  • 87 probable cases reported in 6 states.

  • 20 laboratory-confirmed cases.

  • Clinical cases are apparently less severe than those described in Africa.

  • Preventive measures put into place

    • isolation, individual protection


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Current Status of Outbreak in USA

  • Smallpox vaccination.

    • Health professionals

    • Contacts

      • Infected animals

      • Suspected clinical cases

  • Ban on importation of rodents from Africa.

  • Ban on commercial and interstate pet transport (rodents).


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PAHO Action

  • Information distributed via the listservers of the main Regional Surveillance Networks: RECACER (Central America), Amazon Network, Southern Cone Network

    • Preliminary research findings from the USA.

    • Clinical and epidemiological description to support surveillance activities.

  • Risk of introducing MPKV into Chile identified.


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Risk of Introducing MPXV into Chile

  • On 9 June 2003, PAHO informed by CDC that the Texas animal dealer had exported three prairie dogs to Chile.

  • Chilean authorities immediately informed by the PAHO Country Representative.

  • Animals identified and put into quarantine.

  • Protective measures taken.

  • The animals are and continue to be healthy.

  • Samples sent to CDC.


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