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Social capital, exclusion, and the North East PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Social capital, exclusion, and the North East. IPPR North, 7th Sept 2006 Dr. David Halpern, Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit. Social capital. What is it? Why does it matter? How the NE doing? What can we do to build it?. Definition. Coleman (1988) Bourdieu (1992) Putnam (1993-2002)

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Social capital, exclusion, and the North East

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Social capital, exclusion, and the North East

IPPR North, 7th Sept 2006

Dr. David Halpern, Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit


Social capital

  • What is it?

  • Why does it matter?

  • How the NE doing?

  • What can we do to build it?


Definition

  • Coleman (1988)

  • Bourdieu (1992)

  • Putnam (1993-2002)

  • World Bank

  • Networks, Norms, Sanctions


  • Social trust

  • Wide variations

  • Ongoing work


Why is it important?


Economic effects

  • Individual: Employment and earnings;

  • Meso: NY diamond market, firms;

  • Macro:national & regional differences;

  • Path:transaction costs & information.


Health

  • Indiv: social support - longitudinal data

  • Meso: Roseto, Finland

  • Macro:US states, but nations?

  • Path:stress reaction and support


Crime

  • Indiv: personal histories, prison

  • Meso: neighbourhood and peer effects

  • Macro:US states, national differences

  • Path:‘social control’ and respect


…and fear

Fear often has little relationship to risk...

…but a strong relationship to social trust.


Education

  • Indiv: family influences

  • Meso: school & other ecological effects

  • Macro:US states, OECD literacy

  • Path:aspiration


Government

  • Indiv: housing self-management

  • Meso: Italian case +

  • Macro:national -> supra-national

  • Path:virtuous citizens


And exclusion?


The middle class have more

Men

Women

British Household Panel Survey, 1999. From Li, Savage and Pickles, 2003


The deprived see their neighbours more, but trust them less


Dark side

Social capital isn’t always good...

  • Indiv: Peer groups (sometimes)

  • Meso: Mafia; class

  • Macro:Ethnic conflict


How is the NE doing?


Give regular (monthly) informal voluntary help (4th/10)


“If a child was being rude to an adult, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it” (7th/10)


“If a children spray-painting graffiti on a local building, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it” (9th/10)


Give any regular (monthly) activity – civic, formal/informal volunteering (9th/10)


“If a group of local children playing truant from school, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it” (9th/10)


“If there was a fight near my home and someone was being beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it” (9th/10)


“many of the people in my neighbourhood can be trusted” (9th/10)


Any civil renewal activities* in past 12 months? (10th/10)

* Includes membership of local decision-making groups


Give regular (monthly) formal voluntary help (10th/10)


“People in my neighbourhood would be very likely to participate if asked by a local organisation to help solve a community problem”(10th/10)


“I agree that I can influence decisions affecting my local area” (10th/10)


What can we do?


Causes?

  • Family, education, memberships

  • Urban design and transport, mobility, scale, social and ethnic heterogeneity

  • History, culture, social structures & hierarchy, economic inequality

  • Labour market trends, TV and individualised consumption, individual values


How? ...Micro-level

  • Millennium Volunteers (16-24)

  • Connexions (13-19)

  • Family & parenting support

  • Mentoring - early and whole group

  • Potential offenders - positive experiences

  • Volunteering - short but adventurous?

  • Other - personal relationships?


How? ...Meso-level

  • Homezones; housing mix; devolution...

  • community asset-based welfare;

  • ICT communities

  • built environment

  • chains out of poverty

  • Other - regional, study groups...


How? ...Macro-level

  • Citizenship education; Public service broadcasting

  • service learning - 14-19?

  • community service credit schemes

  • discourse - deliberative forums, soaps, discursive education

  • mutual respect - barriers, citizens juries, listen to youth

  • other - regional football, mobile phones


Conclusions

  • Policy and academic interest

  • Strong exclusion story

  • NE has relatively low sc

  • Optimise - not ‘maximise’


Future research questions

  • Measurement: bridging, bonding, variations

  • Trends… and functional equivalence

  • Diversity

  • Relation to political trust and engagement

  • What works?

  • Who’s issue?


Why act?

  • outcomes

  • externalities

  • equity

  • invisible? (Kahn)


More isn’t always better…


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