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Social capital, exclusion, and the North East. IPPR North, 7th Sept 2006 Dr. David Halpern, Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit. Social capital. What is it? Why does it matter? How the NE doing? What can we do to build it?. Definition. Coleman (1988) Bourdieu (1992) Putnam (1993-2002)

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Social capital, exclusion, and the North East

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Social capital exclusion and the north east l.jpg

Social capital, exclusion, and the North East

IPPR North, 7th Sept 2006

Dr. David Halpern, Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit


Social capital l.jpg

Social capital

  • What is it?

  • Why does it matter?

  • How the NE doing?

  • What can we do to build it?


Definition l.jpg

Definition

  • Coleman (1988)

  • Bourdieu (1992)

  • Putnam (1993-2002)

  • World Bank

  • Networks, Norms, Sanctions


Slide6 l.jpg

  • Social trust

  • Wide variations

  • Ongoing work


Why is it important l.jpg

Why is it important?


Economic effects l.jpg

Economic effects

  • Individual: Employment and earnings;

  • Meso: NY diamond market, firms;

  • Macro:national & regional differences;

  • Path:transaction costs & information.


Health l.jpg

Health

  • Indiv: social support - longitudinal data

  • Meso: Roseto, Finland

  • Macro:US states, but nations?

  • Path:stress reaction and support


Crime l.jpg

Crime

  • Indiv: personal histories, prison

  • Meso: neighbourhood and peer effects

  • Macro:US states, national differences

  • Path:‘social control’ and respect


And fear l.jpg

…and fear

Fear often has little relationship to risk...

…but a strong relationship to social trust.


Education l.jpg

Education

  • Indiv: family influences

  • Meso: school & other ecological effects

  • Macro:US states, OECD literacy

  • Path:aspiration


Government l.jpg

Government

  • Indiv: housing self-management

  • Meso: Italian case +

  • Macro:national -> supra-national

  • Path:virtuous citizens


And exclusion l.jpg

And exclusion?


The middle class have more l.jpg

The middle class have more

Men

Women

British Household Panel Survey, 1999. From Li, Savage and Pickles, 2003


The deprived see their neighbours more but trust them less l.jpg

The deprived see their neighbours more, but trust them less


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Dark side

Social capital isn’t always good...

  • Indiv: Peer groups (sometimes)

  • Meso: Mafia; class

  • Macro:Ethnic conflict


How is the ne doing l.jpg

How is the NE doing?


Give regular monthly informal voluntary help 4th 10 l.jpg

Give regular (monthly) informal voluntary help (4th/10)


Slide21 l.jpg

“If a child was being rude to an adult, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it” (7th/10)


Slide22 l.jpg

“If a children spray-painting graffiti on a local building, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it” (9th/10)


Give any regular monthly activity civic formal informal volunteering 9th 10 l.jpg

Give any regular (monthly) activity – civic, formal/informal volunteering (9th/10)


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“If a group of local children playing truant from school, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it” (9th/10)


Slide25 l.jpg

“If there was a fight near my home and someone was being beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it” (9th/10)


Many of the people in my neighbourhood can be trusted 9th 10 l.jpg

“many of the people in my neighbourhood can be trusted” (9th/10)


Any civil renewal activities in past 12 months 10th 10 l.jpg

Any civil renewal activities* in past 12 months? (10th/10)

* Includes membership of local decision-making groups


Give regular monthly formal voluntary help 10th 10 l.jpg

Give regular (monthly) formal voluntary help (10th/10)


Slide29 l.jpg

“People in my neighbourhood would be very likely to participate if asked by a local organisation to help solve a community problem”(10th/10)


I agree that i can influence decisions affecting my local area 10th 10 l.jpg

“I agree that I can influence decisions affecting my local area” (10th/10)


What can we do l.jpg

What can we do?


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Causes?

  • Family, education, memberships

  • Urban design and transport, mobility, scale, social and ethnic heterogeneity

  • History, culture, social structures & hierarchy, economic inequality

  • Labour market trends, TV and individualised consumption, individual values


How micro level l.jpg

How? ...Micro-level

  • Millennium Volunteers (16-24)

  • Connexions (13-19)

  • Family & parenting support

  • Mentoring - early and whole group

  • Potential offenders - positive experiences

  • Volunteering - short but adventurous?

  • Other - personal relationships?


How meso level l.jpg

How? ...Meso-level

  • Homezones; housing mix; devolution...

  • community asset-based welfare;

  • ICT communities

  • built environment

  • chains out of poverty

  • Other - regional, study groups...


How macro level l.jpg

How? ...Macro-level

  • Citizenship education; Public service broadcasting

  • service learning - 14-19?

  • community service credit schemes

  • discourse - deliberative forums, soaps, discursive education

  • mutual respect - barriers, citizens juries, listen to youth

  • other - regional football, mobile phones


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Conclusions

  • Policy and academic interest

  • Strong exclusion story

  • NE has relatively low sc

  • Optimise - not ‘maximise’


Future research questions l.jpg

Future research questions

  • Measurement: bridging, bonding, variations

  • Trends… and functional equivalence

  • Diversity

  • Relation to political trust and engagement

  • What works?

  • Who’s issue?


Why act l.jpg

Why act?

  • outcomes

  • externalities

  • equity

  • invisible? (Kahn)


More isn t always better l.jpg

More isn’t always better…


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