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Social capital, exclusion, and the North East. IPPR North, 7th Sept 2006 Dr. David Halpern, Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit. Social capital. What is it? Why does it matter? How the NE doing? What can we do to build it?. Definition. Coleman (1988) Bourdieu (1992) Putnam (1993-2002)

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Social capital exclusion and the north east l.jpg
Social capital, exclusion, and the North East

IPPR North, 7th Sept 2006

Dr. David Halpern, Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit


Social capital l.jpg
Social capital

  • What is it?

  • Why does it matter?

  • How the NE doing?

  • What can we do to build it?


Definition l.jpg
Definition

  • Coleman (1988)

  • Bourdieu (1992)

  • Putnam (1993-2002)

  • World Bank

  • Networks, Norms, Sanctions


Slide6 l.jpg



Economic effects l.jpg
Economic effects

  • Individual: Employment and earnings;

  • Meso: NY diamond market, firms;

  • Macro: national & regional differences;

  • Path: transaction costs & information.


Health l.jpg
Health

  • Indiv: social support - longitudinal data

  • Meso: Roseto, Finland

  • Macro: US states, but nations?

  • Path: stress reaction and support


Crime l.jpg
Crime

  • Indiv: personal histories, prison

  • Meso: neighbourhood and peer effects

  • Macro: US states, national differences

  • Path: ‘social control’ and respect


And fear l.jpg
…and fear

Fear often has little relationship to risk...

…but a strong relationship to social trust.


Education l.jpg
Education

  • Indiv: family influences

  • Meso: school & other ecological effects

  • Macro: US states, OECD literacy

  • Path: aspiration


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Government

  • Indiv: housing self-management

  • Meso: Italian case +

  • Macro: national -> supra-national

  • Path: virtuous citizens



The middle class have more l.jpg
The middle class have more

Men

Women

British Household Panel Survey, 1999. From Li, Savage and Pickles, 2003



Dark side l.jpg
Dark side

Social capital isn’t always good...

  • Indiv: Peer groups (sometimes)

  • Meso: Mafia; class

  • Macro: Ethnic conflict




Slide21 l.jpg
“If a child was being rude to an adult, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it” (7th/10)


Slide22 l.jpg

“If a children spray-painting graffiti on a local building, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it” (9th/10)


Give any regular monthly activity civic formal informal volunteering 9th 10 l.jpg
Give any regular (monthly) activity – civic, formal/informal volunteering (9th/10)


Slide24 l.jpg

“If a group of local children playing truant from school, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it” (9th/10)


Slide25 l.jpg

“If there was a fight near my home and someone was being beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it” (9th/10)


Many of the people in my neighbourhood can be trusted 9th 10 l.jpg
“many beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be of the people in my neighbourhood can be trusted” (9th/10)


Any civil renewal activities in past 12 months 10th 10 l.jpg
Any civil renewal activities* in past 12 months? (10th/10) beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be

* Includes membership of local decision-making groups


Give regular monthly formal voluntary help 10th 10 l.jpg
Give regular (monthly) formal voluntary help (10th/10) beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be


Slide29 l.jpg

“People in my neighbourhood would be beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to participate if asked by a local organisation to help solve a community problem”(10th/10)


I agree that i can influence decisions affecting my local area 10th 10 l.jpg
“I beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be agree that I can influence decisions affecting my local area” (10th/10)


What can we do l.jpg
What can we do? beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be


Causes l.jpg
Causes? beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be

  • Family, education, memberships

  • Urban design and transport, mobility, scale, social and ethnic heterogeneity

  • History, culture, social structures & hierarchy, economic inequality

  • Labour market trends, TV and individualised consumption, individual values


How micro level l.jpg
How? ...Micro-level beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be

  • Millennium Volunteers (16-24)

  • Connexions (13-19)

  • Family & parenting support

  • Mentoring - early and whole group

  • Potential offenders - positive experiences

  • Volunteering - short but adventurous?

  • Other - personal relationships?


How meso level l.jpg
How? ...Meso-level beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be

  • Homezones; housing mix; devolution...

  • community asset-based welfare;

  • ICT communities

  • built environment

  • chains out of poverty

  • Other - regional, study groups...


How macro level l.jpg
How? ...Macro-level beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be

  • Citizenship education; Public service broadcasting

  • service learning - 14-19?

  • community service credit schemes

  • discourse - deliberative forums, soaps, discursive education

  • mutual respect - barriers, citizens juries, listen to youth

  • other - regional football, mobile phones


Conclusions l.jpg
Conclusions beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be

  • Policy and academic interest

  • Strong exclusion story

  • NE has relatively low sc

  • Optimise - not ‘maximise’


Future research questions l.jpg
Future research questions beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be

  • Measurement: bridging, bonding, variations

  • Trends… and functional equivalence

  • Diversity

  • Relation to political trust and engagement

  • What works?

  • Who’s issue?


Why act l.jpg
Why act? beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be

  • outcomes

  • externalities

  • equity

  • invisible? (Kahn)


More isn t always better l.jpg
More isn’t always better… beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be


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