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Social capital, exclusion, and the North East. IPPR North, 7th Sept 2006 Dr. David Halpern, Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit. Social capital. What is it? Why does it matter? How the NE doing? What can we do to build it?. Definition. Coleman (1988) Bourdieu (1992) Putnam (1993-2002)

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social capital exclusion and the north east
Social capital, exclusion, and the North East

IPPR North, 7th Sept 2006

Dr. David Halpern, Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit

social capital
Social capital
  • What is it?
  • Why does it matter?
  • How the NE doing?
  • What can we do to build it?
definition
Definition
  • Coleman (1988)
  • Bourdieu (1992)
  • Putnam (1993-2002)
  • World Bank
  • Networks, Norms, Sanctions
slide6
Social trust
  • Wide variations
  • Ongoing work
economic effects
Economic effects
  • Individual: Employment and earnings;
  • Meso: NY diamond market, firms;
  • Macro: national & regional differences;
  • Path: transaction costs & information.
health
Health
  • Indiv: social support - longitudinal data
  • Meso: Roseto, Finland
  • Macro: US states, but nations?
  • Path: stress reaction and support
crime
Crime
  • Indiv: personal histories, prison
  • Meso: neighbourhood and peer effects
  • Macro: US states, national differences
  • Path: ‘social control’ and respect
and fear
…and fear

Fear often has little relationship to risk...

…but a strong relationship to social trust.

education
Education
  • Indiv: family influences
  • Meso: school & other ecological effects
  • Macro: US states, OECD literacy
  • Path: aspiration
government
Government
  • Indiv: housing self-management
  • Meso: Italian case +
  • Macro: national -> supra-national
  • Path: virtuous citizens
the middle class have more
The middle class have more

Men

Women

British Household Panel Survey, 1999. From Li, Savage and Pickles, 2003

dark side
Dark side

Social capital isn’t always good...

  • Indiv: Peer groups (sometimes)
  • Meso: Mafia; class
  • Macro: Ethnic conflict
slide21
“If a child was being rude to an adult, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it” (7th/10)
slide22

“If a children spray-painting graffiti on a local building, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it” (9th/10)

give any regular monthly activity civic formal informal volunteering 9th 10
Give any regular (monthly) activity – civic, formal/informal volunteering (9th/10)
slide24

“If a group of local children playing truant from school, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it” (9th/10)

slide25

“If there was a fight near my home and someone was being beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it” (9th/10)

any civil renewal activities in past 12 months 10th 10
Any civil renewal activities* in past 12 months? (10th/10)

* Includes membership of local decision-making groups

slide29

“People in my neighbourhood would be very likely to participate if asked by a local organisation to help solve a community problem”(10th/10)

causes
Causes?
  • Family, education, memberships
  • Urban design and transport, mobility, scale, social and ethnic heterogeneity
  • History, culture, social structures & hierarchy, economic inequality
  • Labour market trends, TV and individualised consumption, individual values
how micro level
How? ...Micro-level
  • Millennium Volunteers (16-24)
  • Connexions (13-19)
  • Family & parenting support
  • Mentoring - early and whole group
  • Potential offenders - positive experiences
  • Volunteering - short but adventurous?
  • Other - personal relationships?
how meso level
How? ...Meso-level
  • Homezones; housing mix; devolution...
  • community asset-based welfare;
  • ICT communities
  • built environment
  • chains out of poverty
  • Other - regional, study groups...
how macro level
How? ...Macro-level
  • Citizenship education; Public service broadcasting
  • service learning - 14-19?
  • community service credit schemes
  • discourse - deliberative forums, soaps, discursive education
  • mutual respect - barriers, citizens juries, listen to youth
  • other - regional football, mobile phones
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Policy and academic interest
  • Strong exclusion story
  • NE has relatively low sc
  • Optimise - not ‘maximise’
future research questions
Future research questions
  • Measurement: bridging, bonding, variations
  • Trends… and functional equivalence
  • Diversity
  • Relation to political trust and engagement
  • What works?
  • Who’s issue?
why act
Why act?
  • outcomes
  • externalities
  • equity
  • invisible? (Kahn)
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