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PPA 573 – Emergency Management and Homeland Security. Lecture 9a– Homeland Security and Civil Liberties: USA Patriot Act. Citation. John W. Whitehead and Steven H. Aden. “Forfeiting ‘Enduring Freedom’ for ‘Homeland Security.’” 51 American University Law Review 1081. Benjamin Franklin.

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PPA 573 – Emergency Management and Homeland Security

Lecture 9a– Homeland Security and Civil Liberties: USA Patriot Act


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Citation

  • John W. Whitehead and Steven H. Aden.

  • “Forfeiting ‘Enduring Freedom’ for ‘Homeland Security.’”

  • 51 American University Law Review 1081.


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Benjamin Franklin

  • “They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.”


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U.S.A Patriot Act

  • Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism.

  • The Act shifts the balance between civil liberties and national security.

  • 2005 sunset provision.


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Post 9/11 Developments

  • Law enforcement and government officials may:

    • Conduct searches of homes and offices without prior notice;

    • Use roving wiretaps to listen in on phone conversations; and

    • Monitor computers and e-mail messages, including eavesdropping on attorney/client conversations.


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Post 9/11 Developments

  • The use of military tribunals for prosecution of terrorists.

  • The establishment of a national identification card system.


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The Clash Between National Security and Civil Liberties

  • The clash is not new and history demonstrates that, in times of war, the courts (including the Supreme Court) have upheld restrictive laws that abridge rights otherwise protected by the Constitution.


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The Clash Between National Security and Civil Liberties

  • The U.S. is now at war, and the protection of civil liberties has become less of a priority.

  • Freedoms forsaken today may not be regained tomorrow.

    • No likely ending date for the restoration of civil liberties.


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I. Overview: The Newly-created Legal Framework

  • Presidential state of emergency because of the 9/11 attacks and the “continuing and immediate threat of future attacks on the United States.”


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I. Overview: The Newly-created Legal Framework

  • The Bush Administration views the attacks as acts of war by foreign aggressors rather than criminal acts.

  • DOJ mission has become prevention of terrorism rather than prosecution of criminal acts.


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I. Overview: The Newly-created Legal Framework

  • A. Centralization of law enforcement powers in the Justice Department.

    • Enhanced information sharing between law enforcement and intelligence community.

    • Empowered largest criminal investigation in world history.

    • Centralizes investigation of crimes of violence in Attorney General. Most acts of violence against public officials and property.


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I. Overview: The Newly-created Legal Framework

  • A. Centralization of law enforcement powers (contd.).

    • Extension of authority beyond geographic boundaries.

    • Resistance against congressional oversight of intelligence and law enforcement activities.

      • Act allows deferral of reporting dates to Congress.


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I. Overview: The Newly-created Legal Framework

  • B. CIA oversight of domestic intelligence gathering.

    • The Act gives the DCI authority to gather and use intelligence information garnered from domestic sources.


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I. Overview: The Newly-created Legal Framework

  • C. Expanding the scope of “terrorism” and “domestic terrorism.

    • Creates broad new definition of domestic terrorism.


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I. Overview: The Newly-created Legal Framework

  • D. Disregard the constitutional rights of resident non-citizens.

    • Supreme Court has ruled that resident non-citizens are covered by 5th and 6th amendments.

    • Also true of temporary aliens.

    • Actions under USA Patriot Act violate most of these standards.


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II. The 1st Amendment Rights of Free Speech and Association

  • The Supreme Court has repeatedly referred to a “profound national commitment to the principle that debate on public issues should be uninhibited, robust, and wide-open and that it may well include vehement, caustic, and sometimes unpleasantly sharp attacks on government and public officials.”


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II. The 1st Amendment Rights of Free Speech and Association

  • A. Prosecution under the Sedition Act of 1918.

    • Quote from page 6.

    • Can have chilling effect on speech.

  • B. Exclusion of non-citizens accused of “endorsing” terrorism.

    • Membership, material support, endorsement of terrorist aims.


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II. The 1st Amendment Rights of Free Speech and Association

  • C. “Gagging” businesses subjected to federal searches.

    • Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act allows the seizure of records and other tangible items, including computer records. Subjects may not reveal that they have been seized.


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II. The 1st Amendment Rights of Free Speech and Association

  • D. The Attorney General’s view of civil libertarians who oppose him.

    • Tendency to call critics un-American.


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III. The Fourth Amendment Freedom from Unreasonable Search and Seizure

  • The Patriot Act allows officials to sidestep the Fourth Amendment by validating the disregard of notice, probable cause, and proportionality.


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III. The Fourth Amendment Freedom from Unreasonable Search and Seizure

  • The purpose of the 4th Amendment is to prevent arbitrary and oppressive interference by enforcement officials with the privacy and personal security of individuals.

  • Lets a neutral and detached judge decide when a search is appropriate.


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III. The Fourth Amendment Freedom from Unreasonable Search and Seizure

  • A. Expansion of searches under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.

  • B. Sections 206 and 207: Roving FISA wiretaps.

  • C. Sections 214 and 216: FISA pen register and “trap and trace” orders.


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III. The Fourth Amendment Freedom from Unreasonable Search and Seizure

  • D. Section 215: Business records seizures allowed under FISA.

  • E. Sections 201 and 202: Expanding the scope of the Wiretap Act.

  • F. Section 203b: Information disclosed to CIA and other intelligence agencies.


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III. The Fourth Amendment Freedom from Unreasonable Search and Seizure

  • G. Sections 209 and 210: Voice mail, internet, and telephone monitoring.

  • H. Section 213: Sneak and peek warrants.


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IV. The 5 and Seizureth Amendment Right to Indictment by a Grand Jury

  • A. Ending the historic secrecy of grand juries.

  • B. Elimination of the right to indictment by grand jury for non-citizens accused of terrorism.


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V. The 6 and Seizureth Amendment Right to Counsel

  • A. Monitoring attorney-client conversations.

  • B. Refusing suspects access to counsel and discouraging detainees from obtaining legal counsel.


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VI. Military Tribunals: The 6 and Seizureth Amendment Right to Trial by Jury

  • Executive order suspends rights of indictment, trial by jury, appellate relief, and habeas corpus for all non-citizens accused of aiding or abetting terrorists.

  • Tribunal will be both adjudicator of fact and law.

  • Ex Parte Milligan and Ex Parte Quinn.


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VII. The 5 and Seizureth Amendment Right to Due Process of Law

  • Section 412: Indefinite detention of non-citizens without due process.

  • Section 106: Seizure of assets without due process.


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VIII. The Constitutional Right to Privacy and Seizure

  • Sections 355 and 356: Monitoring and reporting on citizen financial transactions.

  • Section 358: Amending the Federal Privacy Statute to allow disclosure of banking records for financial analysis.


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VIII. The Constitutional Right to Privacy and Seizure

  • Section 507: Required disclosure of educational records.

  • Building biometric databases of citizens.


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