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Origins of Islamic Civilization [contested term]. Reli 180 Introduction to Islamic Civilization August 25, 2008. Brief history of “Civilization”, 1. Aristotle on development of life in cities Al-Farabi (d. 950) calls this tamaddun تمدن , from “city” ( madina مدينة )

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Origins of islamic civilization contested term

Origins of Islamic Civilization[contested term]

Reli 180

Introduction to Islamic Civilization

August 25, 2008


Brief history of civilization 1
Brief history of “Civilization”, 1

  • Aristotle on development of life in cities

  • Al-Farabi (d. 950) calls this tamaddunتمدن , from “city” (madinaمدينة )

  • Ibn Khaldun (d. 1382) refers to urban or sedentary life as hadara حضارةand opposes it to nomadic life in the desert (badawaبداوة ), as the two main forms of human society (`umranعمران)


Brief history of civilization 2
Brief history of “Civilization”, 2

  • Dr. Samuel Johnson rejects the term “civilization” from his dictionary (1775)

  • French and English authors nevertheless start using the term around 1790

  • Denotes only European countries as opposed to barbarians of Asia, Africa, America

  • Justification for colonialism (French “mission civilizatrice” or civilizing mission)


Brief history of civilization 3
Brief history of “Civilization”, 3

  • Samuel Huntington (quoting Bernard Lewis) in 1993/96 writes on Clash of Civilizations in post-Soviet context

  • President Khatami of Iran proposes “dialogue of civilizations” (guft-o-guy tamaddoni گقت و گوی تمدنی) in 1996; adopted as theme by UN in 2001


Aims of egger s book preface
Aims of Egger’s book [preface]

“the tension between adherence to tradition on the one hand and adaptation to changing conditions of the other” (xii)

“intellectual and political development receive more attention than social and economic history”

Stages in historical development, varieties of expression of Islam

“Muslim political unity was shattered”


Formative period 610 950
Formative period, 610-950

Continuity of Islamic identity in the absence of central religious authority

Consequent religious differences among Muslims

“Arab Empire” – why not “Muslim”?

Continuities with Roman (Byzantine) and Persian empires



Southwestern asia in the seventh century byzantine empire
Southwestern Asia in the seventh century: Byzantine Empire

Hellenistic [Greek-ish] civilization after Alexander – dominance of Greek language

resentment of Byzantine dominance, religious dissent

Monophysites: Coptic (Egypt), Jacobites (Syria), Armenians; Nestorians; Orthodox

Arabs in the Byzantine world: Palmyra, Ghassanid kingdom


Sasanian empire 226 642 ce
Sasanian Empire (226-642 CE)

Desert surrounded by mountains

Agricultural valleys of Central Asia (Transoxiana, “beyond the Oxus”)

Dense population South of the Caspian

Religious ideas of Zoroastrianism: Resurrection, judgment, heaven and hell, Satan, Messiah (adopted byJews)

Large Christian and Jewish communities





Irano semitic culture and rise of arabs
Irano-Semitic culture and rise of Arabs Emperor Shapur

Academy of science and philosophy at Jundishapur

Arabs in Iraq (Christian), client Lakhmid kingdom with poetic tradition

Exhaustion of Byzantine and Persian empires


The arabian peninsula
The Arabian Peninsula Emperor Shapur

Petra

Marib Dam

South: Yemen, luxury trade; oases

North: Petra, capital of the Nabateans


Changes in the arabian peninsula
Changes in the Arabian Peninsula Emperor Shapur

Domestication of the camel, 500-100 BCE

Nomads and semi-nomads, tribal society

Relations with Ethiopia (Axum)

Jewish rule in Yemen, Christian invasion


The rise of islam mecca
The Rise of Islam -- Mecca Emperor Shapur

Regional trade

Religious background: monotheistic “hanifs”, Jews and Christians [Allah]

Emphasis on God’s unity, “conscientious use of wealth”

Opposition of Meccan pagans

Shift to Medina

The economy of raiding


Text page 28 the death of the prophet
Text, Page 28: the Death of the Prophet Emperor Shapur

  • Creation of a polity in Arabia as a substitute for tribal membership

  • Ultimate loyalty to God rather than one’s tribe

    Question: what are the continuities with the past in the new Arab regime?


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