Online Roles of Faculty and Students: Changing the Way We Teach. Curt Bonk, Indiana University (and CourseShare.com) [email protected] http://php.indiana.edu/~cjbonk. Are You Ready???.
Administrators and faculty members at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are debating what could become a $100-million effort to create extensive World Wide Web pages for nearly every course the university offers.
Jeffrey R. Young, March 1, 2001, The Chronicle of Higher Ed
Douglas Rowlett has turned his English-department office into a virtual radio station that broadcasts continuously on the Internet, offering a mix of poetry readings, lectures, and popular music. He plans to deliver entire courses over the Internet radio station.
Jeffrey R. Young (Jan 8., 2001). Chronicle of Higher Ed.
Santa Clara University has fired an adjunct instructor who sold his students thousands of dollars worth of stock in an online-education venture that appears to never have gotten off the ground.
Sarah Carr, The Chronicle of Higher Ed.
“Lack of admin vision.”
“Lack of incentive from admin and the fact that they do not understand the time needed.”
“Lack of system support.”
“Little recognition that this is valuable.”
“Rapacious U intellectual property policy.”
“Unclear univ. policies concerning int property.”
“Difficulty in performing lab experiments online.”
“Lack of appropriate models for pedagogy.”
“More ideas than time to implement.”
“Not enough time to correct online assign.”
“People need sleep; Web spins forever.”Problems Faced
PromoterStill More Hats
___________Activity: Pick a Online Instruction Metaphor from 40 Options
Twelve forms of electronic learning mentoring and assistance(Bonk & Kim, 1998; Tharp, 1993; Bonk et al., 2001)
1. Social (and cognitive) Acknowledgement: Support!!!"Hello...," "I agree with everything said so far...," "Wow, what a case," "This case certainly has provoked a lot of discussion...," "Glad you could join us..."
2. Questioning: Support!!!"What is the name of this concept...?," "Another reason for this might be...?," "An example of this is...," "In contrast to this might be...,""What else might be important here...?," "Who can tell me....?," "How might the teacher..?." "What is the real problem here...?," "How is this related to...?,“, "Can you justify this?"
3. Direct Instruction: Support!!!"I think in class we mentioned that...," Chapter ‘X’ talks about...," "Remember back to the first week of the semester when we went over ‘X’ which indicated that..."
4. Modeling/Examples: Support!!!"I think I solved this sort of problem once when I...," "Remember that video we saw on ‘X’ wherein ‘Y’ decided to...," "Doesn't ‘X’ give insight into this problem in case ‘Z’ when he/she said..."
5. Feedback/Praise: Support!!!"Wow, I'm impressed...," "That shows real insight into...," "Are you sure you have considered...," "Thanks for responding to ‘X’...," "I have yet to see you or anyone mention..."
6. Cognitive Task Structuring: Support!!!"You know, the task asks you to do...," "Ok, as was required, you should now summarize the peer responses that you have received...," "How might the textbook authors have solved this case."
7. Cognitive Elaborations/Explanations: Support!!!"Provide more information here that explains your rationale," "Please clarify what you mean by...," "I'm just not sure what you mean by...," "Please evaluate this solution a little more carefully."
8. Push to Explore: Support!!!"You might want to write to Dr. ‘XYZ’ for...," "You might want to do an ERIC search on this topic...," "Perhaps there is a URL on the Web that addresses this topic..."
9. Fostering Reflection/Self Awareness: Support!!!"Restate again what the teacher did here," "How have you seen this before?," "When you took over this class, what was the first thing you did?," "Describe how your teaching philosophy will vary from this...," "How might an expert teacher handle this situation?"
10. Encouraging Articulation/Dialogue Prompting: Support!!!"What was the problem solving process the teacher faced here?," "Does anyone have a counterpoint or alternative to this situation?," "Can someone give me three good reasons why...," "It still seems like something is missing here, I just can't put my finger on it."
11. General Advice/Scaffolding/Suggestions: Support!!! "If I were in her shoes, I would...," "Perhaps I would think twice about putting these people into...," "I know that I would first...," "How totally ridiculous this all is; certainly the “person” should be able to provide some..."
12. Management (via private e-mail or discussion): Support!!!"Don't just criticize....please be sincere when you respond to your peers," "If you had put your case in on time, you would have gotten more feedback." "If you do this again, we will have to take away your privileges."
Little or no feedback given Support!!!
Used factual Q’s.
Created tangential discussions
Only used “ultimate” deadlines
Provided regular qual/quant feedback
Participated as peer
Allowed perspective sharing; relevant tasks
Tied discussion to grades, other assessments.
Dennen’s Research on Nine Online Courses (sociology, history, communications, writing, library science, technology, counseling)
Poor Instructors Good Instructors
But How Avoid Shovelware??? Support!!!“This form of structure… encourages teachers designing new products to simply “shovel” existing resources into on-line Web pages and discourages any deliberate or intentional design of learning strategy.” (Oliver & McLoughlin, 1999)
Motivational Terms? Support!!!See Johnmarshall Reeve (1996). Motivating Others: Nurturing inner motivational resources. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. (UW-Milwaukee)
“…innate propensity to engage one’s interests and exercise one’s capabilities, and, in doing so, to seek out and master optimal challenges
(i.e., it emerges from needs, inner strivings, and personal curiosity for growth)
See: Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. NY: Plenum Press.
1. Eight Nouns Activity:
1. Introduce self using 8 nouns
2. Explain why choose each noun
3. Comment on 1-2 peer postings
2. Coffee House Expectations
1. Have everyone post 2-3 course expectations
2. Instructor summarizes and comments on how they might be met
(or make public commitments of how they will fit into busy schedules!)
Multiple Rooms for Chat Support!!!
1. Require minimum # of peer comments and give guidance (e.g., they should do…)
2. Peer Feedback Through Templates—give templates to complete peer evaluations.
3. Have e-papers contest(s)
1. Ask students to vote on issue before class (anonymously or send directly to the instructor)
2. Instructor pulls out minority pt of view
3. Discuss with majority pt of view
4. Repoll students after class
(Note: Delphi or Timed Disclosure Technique: anomymous input till a due date
and then post results and
reconsider until consensus
Rick Kulp, IBM, 1999)
Alternative: Pool field interviews
5. Choice: Multiple Topics Support!!!
(Alternatives: Email Interviews with experts
Assignments with expert reviews)
A. Role Play Personalities
B. Assume Persona of Scholar
In effect, critical friends do not slide over weaknesses, but confront them kindly and directly.
(e.g., Team or Class White Paper, Bus Plan, Study Guide, Glossary, Journal, Model Exam Answers)
1. Tone/Climate: Ice Breakers, Peer Sharing
2. Feedback: Self-Tests, Reading Reactions
3. Engagement: Q’ing, Polling, Voting
4. Meaningfulness: Job/Field Reflections, Cases
5. Choice: Topical Discussions, Starter-Wrapper
6. Variety: Brainstorming, Roundrobins
7. Curiosity: Seances, Electronic Guests/Mentors
8. Tension: Role Play, Debates, Controversy
9. Interactive: E-Pals, Symposia, Expert Panels
10. Goal Driven: Group PS, Jigsaw, Gallery Tours
Pick One…??? (circle one)
“We are evolving out of the era of the Lone Rangers…faculty members can choose to be involved in the design, development, content expertise, delivery, or distribution of course…” (Richard T. Hezel)
Sarah Carr, (Dec 15, 2000, A47), A Day in the Life of a New Type of Professor, The Chronicle of Higher Education