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Microsoft Office 2007 – Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition. Understanding Essential Computer Concepts. Objectives. Investigate types of computers Examine computer systems Examine input devices Examine output devices Investigate data processing Understand memory. Objectives.

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Microsoft Office 2007 – Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition

Understanding Essential Computer Concepts


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Objectives Video Edition

  • Investigate types of computers

  • Examine computer systems

  • Examine input devices

  • Examine output devices

  • Investigate data processing

  • Understand memory

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Objectives Video Edition

  • Understand storage media

  • Explore data communications

  • Learn about networks

  • Learn about security threats

  • Understand system software

  • Understand application software

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Defining Computers Video Edition

  • A computer is an electronic device that:

  • accepts input

  • processes data

  • stores data

  • produces output

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Investigating Types of Computers Video Edition

The categories of computers are:

  • Personal computers

    • Desktop

    • Notebook (Laptop)

    • Tablet PC

  • Hand-helds

    • PDAs

    • MP3 players

    • Cell phones

  • Mainframes

  • Supercomputers

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Investigating Types of Computers Video Edition

Personalcomputers are used for general computing tasks.

Hand-heldcomputers fit in the palm of your hand and run

on batteries.

Mainframes are used by companies to provide centralized

storage, processing, and management for large amounts of

data.

Supercomputers are the largest and fastest of computers,

and can process an enormous volume of data.

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Investigating Types of Computers Video Edition

  • Notebook computer

    • also referred to as a laptop computer

    • small

    • lightweight

    • portable

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Investigating Types of Computers Video Edition

  • PDAs

    • Personal Digital Assistants

    • generally used to maintain an electronic appointment book, address book, calculator, and notepad

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Investigating Types of Computers Video Edition

Supercomputers are the largest and fastest of

computers, and can process an enormous

volume of data.

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Terminals Video Edition

  • Terminal

    • has a keyboard for input

    • monitor for output

    • processes little or no data on its own

  • Terminal emulator

    • personal computer, workstation, or server

    • uses special software to imitate a terminal

    • allows the PC to communicate with he mainframe or supercomputer

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Examining Computer Systems Video Edition

A computer system is made up of:

  • Hardware—the physical components

  • Software—the programs or lists of instructions

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Examining Computer Systems Video Edition

  • Architecture or configuration is the design of the computer.

    • As in, what does the computer consist of?

  • Specifications are the technical details about each component.

    • As in, how big is the monitor?

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Examining Computer Systems Video Edition

  • Data

    • The words, numbers, figures, sounds, and graphics that describe people, events, things, and ideas

  • Processing

    • Modifying data

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Examining Computer Systems Video Edition

  • Motherboard

    • where processing tasks occur

    • located inside the computer

    • the main electronic component of the computer

    • contains the CPU

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Examining Computer Systems Video Edition

  • The data you type into the computer is called input.

  • The result of the computer processing your input is called output.

  • Peripheral devices accomplish the input, output, and storage functions.

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Examining Computer Systems Video Edition

  • Microprocessor

    • a silicon chip designed to manipulate data

    • its speed is determined by:

      • Clock speed

      • Word size

      • Processor type

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Examining Input Devices Video Edition

Some input devices are:

  • Keyboard

  • Mouse

  • Trackball

  • Touch pad

  • Pointing stick

  • Scanner

  • Microphones

Cordless mouse

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Using Assistive Devices Video Edition

  • People who cannot use their arms or hands instead can use foot, head, or eye movements to control the pointer.

  • People with poor vision can use keyboards with large keys for input, screen enlargers to enlarge the type and images on the monitor, or screen readers to read the content of the screen aloud.

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Examining Output Devices Video Edition

  • Monitors and printers are common output devices.

  • CRT monitors and flat panel monitors are two types of monitors.

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Examining Output Devices Video Edition

Factors that influence

a monitor’s quality are:

  • Screen Size

  • Resolution

  • Dot Pitch

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Examining Output Devices Video Edition

  • Types of printers

  • Laser

  • Dot Matrix

  • Inkjet

Inkjetprinter

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Investigating Data Processing Video Edition

  • A computer file is a named collection of stored data.

  • An executable file contains the instructions that tell a computer how to perform a specific task; for instance, the files that are used while the computer starts are executable.

  • A data file is created by a user, usually with software.

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Investigating Data Processing Video Edition

  • Computers interpret every signal as “on” or “off.”

  • 1 (“on”) and 0 (“off”) are referred to as bits.

  • Eight bits is a byte. Each byte represents a unique character.

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Investigating Data Processing Video Edition

  • Kilobyte (KB) = one thousand bytes

  • Megabyte (MB) = one million bytes

  • Gigabyte (GB) = one billion bytes

  • Terabyte (TB) = one trillion bytes

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Investigating Data Processing Video Edition

  • Each ASCII number represents an English character

  • Computers that run the Windows operating system use the set of Extended ASCII definitions defined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).

ANSI standard sample ASCII code

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Memory Video Edition

  • Computer memory is a set of storage locations on the motherboard.

  • There are five types of memory:

    • Random access memory (RAM)

    • Cache memory

    • Virtual memory

    • Read-only memory

    • Complementary metal oxide semiconductor memory (CMOS)

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Memory Video Edition

  • RAM

    • Temporary memory that is constantly changing while the computer is on.

    • Also called volatile memory and temporary memory.

  • Cache memory

    • Special high-speed memory chip on the motherboard or CPU

    • Stores frequently and recently accessed data and commands.

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Memory Video Edition

  • Virtual memory is extra memory that simulates RAM if more is needed.

  • Read-only memory (ROM) is the permanent storage location for a set of instructions the computer uses.

  • CMOS memory is semi-permanent information about where essential software is stored.

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Storage Media Video Edition

  • Magnetic storage devices

    • Store data as magnetized particles on mylar, which is then coated on both sides with a magnetic oxide coating

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Storage Media Video Edition

  • Common magnetic storage devices

    • hard disks—several magnetic oxide covered metal platters usually sealed in a case inside the computer

    • tape—inexpensive, slow, archival storage for large companies who need to back up large quantities of data.

    • floppy disks—flat circles of magnetic oxide-coated mylar enclosed in a hard plastic case; almost obsolete

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Storage Media Video Edition

  • Optical storage devices

    • polycarbonate discs coated with a reflective metal on which data is recorded using laser technology as a trail of tiny pits or dark spots in the surface of the disc

    • the data that these pits or spots represent can then be “read” with a beam of laser light

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Storage Media Video Edition

  • Types of optical storage devices

    • CD—can store 700 MB of data

    • DVD—can store between 4.7 and 15.9 GB of data

      • Blu-ray discs and HD-DVD can store between 15 and 50 GB of data

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Storage Media Video Edition

  • Flash memory—similar to ROM except that it can be written to more than once.

  • Flash memory cards

    • small, portable cards encased in hard plastic to which data can be written and rewritten

    • used in digital cameras, handheld computers, video game controllers, and other devices

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Storage Media Video Edition

  • USB flash storage device(USB drive, flash drive)

    • popular type of flash memory

    • available in a wide range of sizes from 32 MB to 16 GB

    • plug directly into the USB port of a personal computer

    • are about the size of a pack of gum and often have a ring that you can attach to your key chain.

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Erasing and Rewriting on CDs and DVDs Video Edition

  • CD-ROMs are for “read-only” access.

  • CD-R drives allow you to record data on a CD-R disk.

  • CD-RW drives allow you to write data on a CD-RW disk and access and modify data.

  • DVD-R and DVD+R are recordable.

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Exploring Data Communications Video Edition

Data communications is the transmission of text,

numeric, voice, or video data from one computer to

another.

The four essential components of data communications

are:

  • Sender

  • Channel

  • Receiver

  • Protocols

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Exploring Data Communications Video Edition

  • A sender is the computer that originates the message.

  • The message is sent over a channel, such as a telephone.

  • The receiver is the computer at the message’s destination.

  • Protocols are the rules that establish the transfer of data between sender and receiver.

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Exploring Data Communications Video Edition

  • Device driver (or simply driver)

    • handles the transmission protocol between a computer and its peripheral devices

    • a computer program that can establish communication because it contains information about the characteristics of your computer and of the device

  • Data bus

    • the data path between the microprocessor, RAM, and the peripherals along which communication travels

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Exploring Data Communications Video Edition

Components needed to connect a printer to a computer

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Exploring Data Communications Video Edition

PCs have several types of ports:

  • Parallel

  • Serial

  • SCSI

  • USB

  • MIDI

  • Ethernet

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Exploring Data Communications Video Edition

  • Parallel port—transmits data eight bits at a time

  • Serial port—transmits data one bit at a time

  • SCSI (small computer system interface, pronounced “scuzzy”) port—provides an interface for one or more peripheral devices at the same port

  • USB (Universal Serial Bus) port—a high-speed serial port which allows multiple connections at the same port

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Exploring Data Communications Video Edition

  • Sound card port—usually includes jacks for speakers and a microphone, which are designed to work with a MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface, pronounced “middy”) card

  • Ethernet port—used to connect to another computer, a LAN, a modem, or sometimes directly to the Internet; allows data to be transmitted at high speeds.

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Exploring Data Communications Video Edition

Power connection

Computer ports and connections

Mouse port

Keyboard port

Audio connection

Monitor port

FireWire port

USB ports

Network port

Speaker and microphone connections

Phone line connection

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Learning about Networks Video Edition

  • Network

    • connects one computer to other computers and peripheral devices

  • Network interface card (NIC)

    • creates a communications channel between the computer and the network

    • a cable connects the NIC port to the network

  • Network software

    • establishes the communications protocols that will be observed on the network

    • controls the traffic flow of data traveling through the network

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Learning about Networks Video Edition

  • Server

    • acts as the central storage location for programs

    • provides mass storage for most of the data used on the network

  • Client—computers on a network dependent on a server

  • Client/server network—a network with server that acts as the central storage location

  • Peer-to-peer network

    • a network without a server

    • all of the computers are equal

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Learning about Networks Video Edition

  • Standalone computer—a personal computer that is not connected to a network

  • Workstation—a personal computer that is connected to a network

  • Node—any device connected to the network

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Learning about Networks Video Edition

Server

Workstation

Printer

Workstation

Your local workstation

Network configuration

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Learning about Networks Video Edition

  • LAN (local area network)

    • computers and peripherals located close to each other

  • WAN (wide area network)

    • more than one LAN connected together

    • the Internet is the largest example of a WAN

  • WLAN (wireless local area network)

    • computers and peripherals that use high-frequency radio waves instead of wires to communicate and connect in a network

    • Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) describes WLANs connected using a standard radio frequency established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Learning about Networks Video Edition

  • PAN (personal area network)—a network that allows two or more devices located close to each other to communicate or to connect a device to the Internet

    • infrared technology—uses infrared light waves to beam data from one device to another

    • Bluetooth—uses short range radio waves to connect a device wirelessly to another device or to the Internet

  • WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)

    • allows computers to connect over many miles to a LAN

    • a WiMAX tower sends signals to a WiMAX receiver built or plugged into a computer

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Learning about Networks Video Edition

Analog signal

Digital signal

Digital signal

Modem

Modem

Sending site

Receiving site

Using modems to send and receive data

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Learning about Security Threats Video Edition

  • Security

    • refers to the steps a computer owner takes to prevent unauthorized use of or damage to the computer

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Learning about Security Threats Video Edition

  • Malware

    • describes any program that is intended to cause harm or convey information to others without the owner’s permission

  • Viruses

    • harmful programs that instruct your computer to perform destructive activities, such as erasing a disk drive

    • Antivirus software (virus protection software) searches executable files for the sequences of characters that may cause harm and disinfects the files by erasing or disabling those commands

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Learning about Security Threats Video Edition

  • Spyware

    • programs contained with other programs that track a computer user’s Internet usage and send this data back to the company or person that created it

    • usually installed without the computer user’s permission or knowledge

    • Anti-spyware software detects spyware and deletes them

  • Adware

    • software installed with another program usually with the user’s permission

    • generates advertising revenue for the program’s creator by displaying targeted ads to the program’s user

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Learning about Security Threats Video Edition

  • Firewall

    • prevents other computers on the Internet from accessing a computer and prevents programs on a computer from accessing the Internet without the computer user’s permission

    • can be either hardware or software

    • router

      • a device that controls traffic between network components

      • usually has a built-in firewall.

    • software firewalls track all incoming and outgoing traffic

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Learning about Security Threats Video Edition

  • Spoofed site

    • a Web site set up to look like another Web site, but which does not belong to the organization portrayed in the site

    • the URL (address on the Web) looks similar to a URL from the legitimate site

    • usually set up to try to convince customers of the real site to enter personal information

  • Phishing

    • the practice of sending e-mails to customers or potential customers of a legitimate Web site asking them to click a link in the e-mail

    • the link leads to a spoofed site

  • Pharming

    • when a criminal breaks into a DNS server (a computer responsible for directing Internet traffic) and redirect any attempts to access a particular Web site to the criminal’s spoofed site

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Protecting Information with Passwords Video Edition

  • Logging in

    • signing in with a user name and password

  • Strong password

    • at least eight characters

    • consists of upper- and lowercase letters and numbers

    • does not include common personal information

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding System Software Video Edition

  • System software helps the computer carry out it s basic operating tasks.

  • The four types of system software are:

  • Operating systems

  • Utilities

  • Device drivers

  • Programming languages

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding System Software Video Edition

  • Operatingsystem

    • controls the input and output (I/O)

    • allocates system resources

    • manages files on storage devices

    • guards against equipment failure

  • Operating environment

    • provides a graphical user interface (GUI) that acts as a liaison between the user and the computer

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding System Software Video Edition

  • Utilities

    • a category of system software that augment the operating system by taking over some of its responsibility for allocating hardware resources

  • Device drivers

    • handle the transmission protocol between a computer and its peripherals

    • when you add a device to an existing computer, part of its installation includes adding its device driver to the computer’s configuration

  • Programming languages

    • used by a programmer to write computer instructions

    • the instructions are translated into electrical signals that the computer can manipulate and process.

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Icons (you might see additional icons on your screen) Video Edition

Gadgets (small programs; you might see additional or different gadgets on your screen)

Start button

Taskbar

Quick Launch toolbar

Understanding System Software

Windows Vista starting screen

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Application Software Video Edition

  • Application software

    • enables you to perform specific computer tasks

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Application Software Video Edition

  • Document production software

    • includes word processing software, desktop publishing software, e-mail editors, and Web authoring software

    • has a variety of features that assist you in writing and formatting documents, including changing the font (the style of type) and spell checking to help you avoid typographical and spelling errors

  • Spreadsheet software

    • a numerical analysis tool

    • used to create a worksheet composed of a grid of columns and rows

    • you type data into the cells, and enter mathematical formulas into other cells that reference the data

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Application Software Video Edition

A wiggly red line indicates a possible spelling error

Spell checking a document

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Application Software Video Edition

Graph

Cell B5 contains result of calculation performed by spreadsheet software

Typical worksheet with numerical data and a graph

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Application Software Video Edition

  • Database management software

    • lets you collect and manage data

  • Database

    • a collection of information stored on one or more computers organized in a uniform format of records and fields

    • record—a collection of data items in a database

    • field—one piece of information in the record

    • An example of a database is the online catalog of books at a library; the catalog contains one record for each book in the library, and each record contains fields that identify the title, the author, and the subjects under which the book can be classified.

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Application Software Video Edition

  • Graphics software

    • allows you to create illustrations, diagrams, graphs, and charts

  • Presentation software

    • allows you to project a presentation before a group, print it out for quick reference, or transmit it to remote computers

  • Clip art

    • simple drawings that are included as collections with many software packages

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Application Software Video Edition

  • Photo editing software

    • allows you to manipulate digital photos

    • you can make the images brighter, add special effects to the photo, add additional images to a photo, or crop the photo to include only relevant parts of the image

  • Multimedia authoring software

    • allows you to record digital sound files, video files, and animations

  • Web site creation and management software

    • allows you to create and manage Web sites

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Application Software Video Edition

  • Information management software

    • keeps track of schedules, appointments, contacts, and “to-do” lists

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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Understanding Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Video Edition

  • Object linking and embedding (OLE)

    • refers to the ability to use data from another file, called the source

  • Embedding

    • occurs when you copy and paste the source data in the new file

  • Linking

    • allows you to create a connection between the source data and the copy in the new file

    • the link updates the copy every time a change is made to the source data

  • Integration

    • the seamless nature of OLE among some applications

Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition


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