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Model-Driven Development for Embedded Software Product Lines. Julia Rubin, Tali Yatzkar-Haham, and Uri Avraham Model Driven Engineering Technologies IBM Haifa Research Lab. June 25, 2008. Handcrafted for individual customers. Production Line – Mass Production.

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Model driven development for embedded software product lines l.jpg

Model-Driven Development for Embedded Software Product Lines

Julia Rubin, Tali Yatzkar-Haham, and Uri Avraham

Model Driven Engineering TechnologiesIBM Haifa Research Lab

June 25, 2008


Product lines motivation l.jpg

Handcrafted for individual customers

Production Line – Mass Production

Mass Customization: large-scale production tailored to individual customers’ needs

Product Lines - Motivation

  • Software is becoming complex

  • Reuse is becoming an imperative

  • Mass customization – producing goods and services to meet individual customer's needs – should be done with near mass production efficiency


Software product line engineering l.jpg
Software Product Line Engineering

Software product lines refers to engineering techniques for creating a

portfolio of similar software systems from a shared set of software assets

  • A product line represents a family of manufactured products

  • A product line architecture explicitly captures the commonality and variability of a product line components and their compositions

Software Product Line Engineering makes it possible to

  • create software for different products

  • use variability to customize the software to each different product


Product line engineering framework l.jpg

Product Management

Product Management

Domain Engineering

Requirements

Architecture

Components

Tests

Domain Requirements Engineering

Domain Design

Domain Realisation

Domain Testing

Domain Artefacts incl. Variability Model

Application Engineering

Application Requirements Engineering

Application Design

Application Realisation

Application Testing

Application N – Artefacts incl. Variability Model

Application 1 – Artefacts incl. Variability Model

Requirements

Architecture

Components

Tests

Product Line Engineering Framework

Domain Engineering:Define and realize the commonality and variability. The goal is to establish a reusable platform

Application Engineering:Reuse domain artifacts, exploiting variability to build a product. The goal is to derive a product from the platform established in the Domain Engineering phase

Based on the “Software Product Line Engineering” book by Klaus Pohl,Günter Böckle and Frank J. van der Linden


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Feature Model - a Mechanism to Capture Commonalities and Variabilities

Feature represents requirement or characteristic of a product

A MP3 Product Line may include the following (high level) features:

  • Photo Viewer

  • Audio Codec

  • Video Codec

  • Sound Device

  • Language

  • Camera

  • FM Radio

A feature model describes all possible features of a system, and also defines semantic relationships between these features


Feature model types l.jpg
Feature Model Types Variabilities

  • Simple Flat model - feature list

  • More complex model - connections and grouping of features with conditions among them

    • mutual exclusive groups

    • mutual inclusive groups

    • required dependency between features

    • selective groups (up to n features from the group)

    • parameterized features



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Complex Feature Models are Based on FODA Variabilities (Feature Oriented Domain Analysis)

  • Introduced in 1990 by K. Kang et al, Carnegie Mellon Universityhttp://www.sei.cmu.edu/domain-engineering/FODA.html

  • Has undergone several extensions to improve its expressiveness

  • The original Feature Diagrams are composed of:

    • A root element that refers to the complete product line

    • Feature nodes: mandatory (by default) or optional (with a hollow circle, e.g. coolant).

    • Relations between nodes that can be:

      • Consists-of: and-decomposition (e.g. between Monitor Fuel Consumption and its sons)

      • Consists-of: xor-decomposition (e.g. between Methods and its sons)

      • Constraints: mutually-exclusive (added as textual annotation)


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Tool-Assisted Feature Model Configuration Variabilities

Feature states:

User selected (“Registered”)

Machine selected (“Registration”, to hold global constraint)

User eliminated (“Wish Lists”)

Machine eliminated (“Send Wish List”, sub component)

Undecided (“Search”)


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Feature Model Survey Variabilities

Gears

FODA: Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis

Feature Modeling Plug-inCardinality-Based Feature Modeling and ConstraintsMapping Features to Models

Designing Software Product Lines with UML

Hassan Gomaa

Software Product Line Engineering


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Interesting Qualities Variabilities

  • Different lifecycle phases are controlled by feature models of different granularity:

    • e.g., a requirements feature model is less detailed than a design feature model.

  • Different degrees of details depending on different perspective

    • e.g. customer:small degree of details, sales:middle degree of details, development:maximum degree of details

    • hierarchies among these

  • Partial configurations


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Use Variabilities Case - Samsung’s Digital Printer Platform (Product Line)

INKJET

MONO LASER

MFP INKJET

COLOR LASER

MFP MONO LASER

MFP COLOR LASER

59 Printers

12


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Model Driven Development Environment for Variabilities Electronics Software Product Lines

  • Supports component based modeling

  • Addresses the specific requirements of product line software development

  • Based on a standard modeling framework (UML) and on the Rational toolset

    • UML Profile

  • Takes advantage of existing IBM Rational tooling capabilities:

    • Editors

    • Validation framework

    • Transformation framework

    • More…

  • With tooling to automate transformations from models to product artifacts and build scripts


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Design - Architecture of Printer Platform Variabilities

DPSVC

Printer

Services

Service

Manager

PictBridge

SmarThru

JMS

Smart

Panel

PrintSS

ScanSS

CopySS

CSS

Printer

Middleware

ImSS

CommSS

FaxSS

OSAL

HAL

Toner

Ink

No-Nois

ScanLens

Memory

HDD

Power

Paper

VxWorks

pSOS

Embedded Linux

x86

MIPS

ARM

Albatross

ATI

Etc

Base Platform

14



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Architecture of the Main Printer Component in RSA Variabilities

Variability Support


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COM Variabilities 2 Component Model Highlights

  • Components are modelled at two different levels - the functionallevel and the buildlevel

  • Variability can be categorized as external and internal

    • External variability are variation points that are visible at the level of components and their connections

    • Internal variability exists internally within the implementations of components

  • Variability is controlled by configuration variables

    • The same configuration variable can control variability of one or more components, i.e., the same variability can exist across multiple model elements.

  • Configuration propagation is used when an assignment of a value to a configuration variable of some component propagates down to all its subcomponents and controls their variability chooses


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From Platform Model to Products Variabilities

Platform Model (Product Line Model) Components + VariabilityDigital Printer Platform

Update,Add New Features

RunValidation

Configuration

ProductSCX-4321Model

Product MJC-8700Model

RunValidation

Any other printer…

Transformation

Transformation

ProductSCX-4321Build Scripts

ProductMJC-8700Build Scripts


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Summary - Benefits Variabilities

  • Reduction in the average time to create and deploy a new product

    • Predictive versus opportunistic software reuse

  • Reduction in the average number of defects per product

    • Improved quality through reuse

    • Common elements are reviewed and tested in many products

  • Reduction ofmaintenance effort

    • Propagation of error corrections to all products

  • Better coping withevolution

    • Adding a new feature to the platform allows adding it to any derived product

  • Increase in the total number of products that can be effectively deployed and managed

    • Multiple products are created from the common base

  • Increase automation using model-driven development


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Thank You! Variabilities Questions?


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