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Presented at the STC India 12 th Annual Conference, November 11, 12, and 13, 2010, New Delhi. Knowledge Management: On the Road to Nirvana. Saurabh Kudesia Manager, Technical Documentation Tejas Networks Ltd. Bangalore saurabhkudesia@gmail.com. About the Speaker: Saurabh Kudesia.

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Presented at the STC India 12th Annual Conference, November 11, 12, and 13, 2010, New Delhi

Knowledge Management: On the Road to Nirvana

Saurabh KudesiaManager, Technical DocumentationTejas Networks Ltd. Bangaloresaurabhkudesia@gmail.com


About the Speaker: Saurabh Kudesia

Manager, Technical Documentation at Tejas Networks Bangalore

Co-founder, former editor-in-chief, KnowGenesis International Journal for Technical Communication (IJTC)

Former associate editor of Directives, a newsletter published by the (STC) Management SIG

Bachelor of Electronics and a Certified Scrum Master (CSM)

Alumnus of Symbiosis Institute (Pune) and IIM (Bangalore)


In this session

Popular Myths and Realities of Knowledge Management (KM)

The Essence of Knowledge Management

Knowledge flow and KM framework

Understanding KM Models and Value Chain

Why KM Systems Fail?

Approaches to KM

Some exercises

Summary


Exercise: Myths or Realities?

Knowledge can be shared.

Knowledge can be transferred.

Knowledge Management is a new phenomenon.

Knowledge Management is about technology.

KM is ‘One size fits all’ mantra.

Knowledge Management = data warehousing.

People do not like to share their knowledge.

Knowledge sharing is difficult in organization.

Knowledge management dramatically affects the bottom line.

Knowledge management must be implemented on an enterprise basis.

Knowledge management needs a chief knowledge officer.


Understanding Knowledge

a systemic and organizationally specified process for acquiring, organizing, and communicating both tacit and explicit knowledge of employees so that other employees may make use of it to be more effective and productive in their work. (Alavi and Leidner, 1999)

fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, and expert insight that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. It originates and is applied in the minds of knowers. In organizations, it often becomes embedded not only in documents or repositories, but also in organization routines, processes, and norms. (Davenport and Prusak, 2000)

the formalization of and access to experience, knowledge and expertise that create new capabilities, enable superior performance, encourage innovation and enhance customer value. (Beckman, 1999)


Phases of Knowledge Creation

Not a linear process.

Each phase influences previous phases.

Each phase is influenced by the task at hand, the objective or purpose, the context in which this task is to be performed and the context in which the required signals could be perceived

Impression

Interpretation

Conviction

Knowledge

perceiving

interpreting

understanding

justifying


Knowledge Transfer

Knowledge sharer creates signals.

Receiver has to complete all the phases of knowledge creation

Knowledge created by the receiver need not be same as original knowledge of sender.

Knowledge can be shared, but not transferred.

Impression

Interpretation

Conviction

Knowledge

Signals

perceiving

interpreting

understanding

justifying

Sharer

Receiver


Unless converted, knowledge has no value

Knowledge

Knowledge

Derivative

Labor

Value

  • Knowledge in itself has no value.

  • Knowledge resides within a human being, and it cannot be detached.

  • This human being can produce knowledge derivates.

  • These knowledge derivates could have value when they can be combined with Labor.

  • We can sell/trade the knowledge derivates.

  • We can sell signals, but we cannot sell the knowledge from which these signals originate.

  • Therefore, knowledge production is not a linear process.


Simple Knowledge Flow

Resource

Use Knowledge

Create Knowledge

Manage Knowledge


Process View of Knowledge Management

Store

Acquire

Deploy

Add Value

Capture Knowledge

Organize Knowledge

Define the Resource

Create the Resource

Manage the Resource

Use

Knowledge

Create

Knowledge

Manage Knowledge

Resource-based Customer Services

Develop Knowledge

Distribute Knowledge


Major Knowledge Management Systems

Increasing intelligence axis

Enterprise Wide KM Systems

Knowledge Work Systems

Intelligent Techniques

General Purpose, integrated, firm-wide efforts to collect, store, disseminate, and use digital content and knowledge

Specialized workstation and systems that enable other knowledge workers to create and discover new knowledge

Tools for discovering patterns and applying knowledge to discrete decisions and knowledge domains

  • Data mining

  • Neural networks

  • Expert systems

  • Case-based reasoning

  • Fuzzy logic

  • Genetic algorithms

  • Intelligent agents

  • Computer-aided design (CAD)

  • 3D Visualization

  • Virtual Reality

  • Investment workstations

  • Structured knowledge systems

  • Semi-structured knowledge systems

  • Knowledge network systems


Goals of KM

Manage and Locate crucial information

Capture competitive advantages

Avoid costs and consequences of relearning lessons

Focus on long term than short term

Stimulate knowledge growth and creation

Recognize and reward knowledge reuse


Knowledge Management Models

Models provide a way of translating managerial activities and guiding managerial efforts in managing knowledge in the organizations.

KM models have evolved over time

Models

Boisot’s Knowledge Category Models

Nonaka’s Knowledge Management Model

Hedlund and Nonaka’s Knowledge Management Model

Skandia Intellectual Capital Model of Knowledge Management

Demerest’s Knowledge Management Model

Frid’s Knowledge Management Model

Stankosky and Baldanza’s Knowledge Management Framework

Kogut and Zander’s Knowledge Management Model

A constant shift from categorical view to the more complicated and complex mechanistic and socially constructed perspective.


Centralized & Distributed Knowledge Models

Centralized Organizational Model: Knowledge is continuously negotiated and created within an organizational unit.

Distributed Organizational Model: Knowledge is continuously managed within organizational units, and it is continuously negotiated by people who try to understand how other units look like from different interpretation schemas.


Exercise

  • Brainstorm on how can you build a Knowledge Management System for Developing, Capturing, Organizing, and Distributing knowledge within your team (Technical Publications Department)

  • Sit with your own team members if possible.

  • You have got 5 minutes for the exercise.

  • Let’s hear to two groups and their ideas after that. Please also mention the challenges that you foresee.

  • List any work that you have already done, which you think will be useful to you in developing a KM System.


Why KM Systems Fail

Focus on only one requirement

Thinking of technology first than the users.

Uncomfortable ‘IT experience’

Lack of support from Management

People are afraid of losing “competitive advantage”

Representations of knowledge does not satisfy the needs and the interpretation schemas of users.

The existing KM models tend to narrowly define knowledge from conceptual and perceptual perspectives and fail to recognize affectual knowledge such as values and visions.

Most models view KM as a linear or cyclical process and thus fail to identify the multidimensional nature of the knowledge dynamics between individuals and organizations.


Strategic Design Perspective

Political Perspective

Cultural Perspective

Supporting Framework Various Perspectives


Supporting Framework: Strategic Design Perspective

What are the strategic grouping structures in the organization/team?

What are the principal linking mechanisms?

What are the major alignment challenges, and how are they addressed?

What are the major strengths and weaknesses of the organization design?


How much power to the organization/team has in the situation?

What are the bases of the power?

What is the potential effect of the proposed system on the different stakeholders influence in the organization?

What are the resistances?

What are the effects of the resistances on the success or failure of the initiative?

Supporting Framework: Political Perspective


How is the initiative been portrayed to the organization? How do people “see” it? How do they define it?

How is the initiative related to the values and basic assumptions of the organization? Does it reinforce them or challenge them?

Are there any “ceremonies” or rituals involved in introducing the initiative? How are they interpreted?

What type of language is used in discussing the initiative? Does it vary, depending on who is speaking, or on who is listening?

Supporting Framework: Cultural Perspective


The Balancing Act

Culture

- Balance corporate and local goals

- Facilitate communities of practice

- Create reward and recognition

- Recognize ownership

- Enable sharing and reuse

  • Deliver training

  • Mainstream services

  • Create strategic tools

  • Form partnerships

Supporting

Services

Knowledge

Architecture

IT Infrastructure

KM

  • Capture content

  • Provide content

  • Require interoperability

  • Maintain directories

  • Develop and gather repositories

  • Categorize and codify knowledge resources

  • Specify access methods

  • Create building blocks

  • Adopt standards

  • Sustain service bases


Two guiding principles

Principle of Autonomy – each organizational unit should be granted a high degree of autonomy to manage its local knowledge and its interpretation schema

Principle of Coordination – each organizational unit must be enabled to exchange knowledge with others not through the adoption of a single, common interpretation schema.


Summary

Important variables which determine success or failure of KM systems:

organizational model

technological architecture

Three main areas of KM: processes, systems and data

People are the key. Recognize people and reward people for sharing knowledge

Encourage and support communities of practice

Strike a balance between long-term corporate needs (capturing knowledge) with short-term local needs (completing a task quickly)


Suggested Readings

Websites:

Sun's knowledge network enhances its selling skills. http://www.kmtalk.net/article.php?story=20050412032755660

Dow chemical capitalizes on intellectual assets http://www.kmtalk.net/article.php?story=20050412033035404

Knowledge Management at The MITRE Corporation http://www.mitre.org/work/tech_papers/tech_papers_03/maybury_knowledge/KM_MITRE.pdf

Additional Readings:

Nonaka, I. And Takeuchi, H (1995). The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation. Oxford University Press.

Haslinda, Sarinah (2009) A Review of Knowledge Management Models, The Journal of International Social Research, Volume 2 / 9.

Saurabh Kudesia (Oct 2009). From Electronics Landfills to Information Superhighway: Enhancing Document Management Framework at Tejas Networks. Dr. Vijay Kumar Festschrift ‘Serving Knowledge in the 21st Century; published by Knowledge Management Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai.

Thomas Stewart (1997). Intellectual Capital, The New Wealth of Organizations. Doubleday/Currency.

Melissie Clemmons Rumizen (2002). The Complete Idiot’s Guide To Knowledge Management. John A. Woods, CWL Publishing Enterprises.

Harvard Business Review on Measuring Corporate Performance, 1998, Harvard Business Review.

Cisco Systems, Inc.: Implementing ERP. Harvard Business School case 699-022

Buckman Laboratories (A). Harvard Business School case 800-160


Question Answers?


Thank You!For additional information, contact: Saurabh Kudesiasaurabhkudesia@gmail.com


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