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Medina mosque. Mecca mosque. ISLAM. Muhammad preaches to early converts. Key terms. Islam = “submission to the will of Allah (God)”; name of religion passed down from Allah to Muhammad Muslim = “one who submits”; one who practices the Islamic religion

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islam

Medina mosque

Mecca mosque

ISLAM

Muhammad preaches to early converts

key terms
Key terms
  • Islam = “submission to the will of Allah (God)”; name of religion passed down from Allah to Muhammad
  • Muslim = “one who submits”; one who practices the Islamic religion
  • Qu’ran = “recitation”; Allah’s revelations to Muhammad for 23 years
    • 114 chapters (surahs)
    • 6,000 verses (ayahs)
    • Poetic, spiritual, moral teachings
    • Pre-hijra revelations = belief in Allah’s spirituality
    • Post-hijra = how to organize politically, economically, poor, disabled, crime, etc.
muhammad ibn abdullah
Muhammad ibn Abdullah
  • Born in Mecca in Saudi Arabia (c.570 – 632)
  • Querysh ethnicity = nomadic traders who controlled Mecca politically & economically
  • Khadijah = wife & 4 daughters
  • 40 yrs.= Mt. Hirato fast & meditate, received revelations from Allah through Jibral,
    • Only 1 God, Allah, Muhammad is last prophet
    • Abraham founded the religious tradition, 1st prophet
    • Jews & Christians strayed from their faith, M’s role was to restore faith for all people
  • Next 23 yrs. = continued to receive revelations
muhammad ibn abdullah4
Muhammad ibn Abdullah
  • preached in Mecca
  • New beliefs challenged Querysh religious beliefs & political/economic interests
  • Querysh persecuted M so moved to Medina
  • 622 = “Hijra”: emigration to Medina, 1st year of Islamic calendar
  • ruled as supreme judge & political leader of 1st Islamic state & returned to control Mecca
  • 632 = Mohammad died at age 72
shia sunni sufi islam
Shia, Sunni, & Sufi Islam
  • Who should become caliph upon M’s death?
    • Ali, husband of Fatima: Shia Ali
    • Abu Bakr, M’s disciple
    • M selected Abu Bakr: Sunni
    • Shia today: 10-15% of Muslims
    • Sunni today: 85-90% of Muslims
  • Sufism = mystical & ascetic spiritual practices, no Sharia, spiritual teachers have direct union w/Allah (shayks, pirs, walis, marabouts)
stereotypes
Stereotypes
  • Orientalism = (Edward Said’sOrientalism, 1979); Western style of dominating, imagining, misrepresenting & having authority over the East
  • Islam = inherently violent, called for holy wars to convert people
  • Post 9/11/01 = backward religion, terrorists, violent fanatics who want to suppress freedom & dissent

Reality = fastest growing of major religions:

1.3 billion pple, 1/5 world population

5 pillars of islam
5 Pillars of Islam
  • Shahada = profess faith in Allah & Muhammad
  • Salat = pray 5 times/day, facing Mecca
  • Sawam = fast during Ramadan (9th month)
  • Zakat = give alms to support poor, orphans, disabled in your community
  • Hajj = make pilgrimage to Mecca (12th month)
aspects of islam
Aspects of Islam
  • Cosmology = heaven, earth, hell
  • Humans = represent God on earth, judged according to deeds
    • Must follow God’s will, path of righteousness
    • Weak & easily tempted, must repent
    • “Islam” = submit to the will of Allah
    • Day of reckoning = righteous to heaven, evil to hell
  • Sharia = Islamic law: politics & codes for criminal law, family, marriage; different schools of Islamic law (Maliki, Hanifa, Al-Shafi, Hanbali)
gender family marriage
Gender, family, marriage
  • Early research: focused on texts, distorted realities, male researchers no access to women
  • Qu’ran: forbids female infanticide & all sexual immorality
  • Sharia law:
    • Women inherit ½ parents’ estate
    • Women are ½ legal status of men
  • Polygyny practiced but not universally
  • Arranged marriages: education, age, class, sex
  • Economic, political, cultural factors influence practices: no rigid norms
slide11

Pre-Islamic origins: Mesopotamian, Persian, Jewish, Christian, Byzantine cultures

  • Hijab meanings
    • Sacred divide between men & women
    • Outward symbol of separation
    • Modesty
    • Morality
  • Purdah = enforced seclusion of women
  • Revival movements: women reclaim veil
    • Protection from strangers
    • Desexualizes work environment
    • Anti-western colonialism & imperialism: attacked Islamic cultural identity
islamic civilizations
Islamic Civilizations
  • Islam spread from Arabic region (Middle East) to: North Africa, Spain, and Asia
  • Early civilizations: Baghdad (Iraq), Cairo (Egypt), Cordoba (Spain), Palermo (Sicily)
  • Baghdad (750 – 1258)
    • Universities
    • Translated texts from Greek, Roman, Hindu, & Persian cultures into Arabic; synthetic philosophy
    • Algebra, geometry, trigonometry, physics, astronomy, philosophy, art, architecture, medicine
  • Arabic = (700-1300, Middle Ages) world’s major intellectual & scientific language & influenced the West
western colonization
Western colonization
  • 1095-1291 = “Crusades,” EU launched military expeditions to defeat Islamic dynasties & return Holy Land to Christian rule
  • EU wanted control of Eastern trade routes (spices, silk, cotton)
  • 1400’s = Portuguese establish ports from Arabia to SE Asia, controlled spice trade
  • 1800’s = EU colonizes Middle East: seeking raw materials & new markets
british french colonies
British & French colonies
  • Suez canal: 1869, connected Mediterranean Sea W/Gulf of Suez
    • 101 miles long
    • immediate and dramatic effect on world trade
    • combined w/ American Transcontinental railroad, allowed entire world to be circled in record time
    • British & French owned
    • increased EU penetration & colonization of Africa
slide15

Egypt: British colony in 1882; sugar, cotton

  • Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco: French colonies; railroads, mining, agriculture
  • Iran: N. Iran was Russian colony, S. Iran was British; tobacco
  • SE Asia: Dutch in 1917; sugar, coffee, tobacco, indigo
  • Malaysia: British; tin, rubber, Chinese labor
post wwii colonies
Post-WWII colonies
  • French: North Africa, Lebanon, Syria
  • British: Egypt, Iraq, Palestine, South Asia
  • Dutch: SE Asia
  • Colonial economies based on cash crops: tea, coffee, sugar, tobacco, cotton, opium
  • Independence/nationalist movements, new nation-states in 1960’s:

Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Indonesia, Malaysia, Kuwait, Iraq, Tunisia, Syria, Jordan

post colonial islamic reform movements
Post-colonial Islamic Reform movements
  • Egypt
    • Women are equal to men in constitution
    • Anti-sexual discrimination laws
    • Women involved in medicine, law, engineering, management, government, etc.
    • Liberal divorce laws
  • Turkey & Tunisia: prohibit polygyny
  • Saudi Arabia
    • Gender segregation: schools, jobs, transport, public entrances, etc.
why islamic resurgent movements in 1970 s
Why Islamic resurgent movements in 1970’s?
  • 1967 Arab-Israeli war: Arab territories lost to Israel, turned to Islamic faith for strength
  • Oil boom: Allah’s will; revenues in Libya, Iran, Saudi supported fundamentalist movements
  • Disillusionment w/capitalism & socialism: looked to Islamic solution
  • Iran success: Islamic revolution overthrew secular, Western-influenced shah
iran s islamic revolution
Iran’s Islamic Revolution
  • 1500’s: Shia Islam became state religion; today, 90% of Iranians are Shia
  • Shia leaders:
    • Mullahs = village preachers
    • Mujtahids = religious judges
    • Ayatollahs = religious scholars, moral & political leaders
    • Shahs = political rulers
slide20

Iran “modernizes”

    • economy, military, education
    • Educated elite: Western democratic values & representative govt.
    • Opposed Shah’s absolute power
  • Shia critique: shah gave West permission to undermine Islam
  • 1925-1979 Pahlavi dynasty
    • Shia leaders viewed as obstacles to modernization
    • Secular laws replaced Sharia law
    • No more veil
    • 1963 “White Revolution”
      • Shah was “Great Satan,” puppet of US govt.
      • Commercial agriculture, land reform, capitalism, landless peasants, women vote, SAVAK secret police
      • Ayatollah Khomeini arrested
opposition increases
Opposition increases
  • Rural migrants: sided with Islamic clergy
  • Westernized middle class: democratic hopes
  • University students: Shia Islam like liberation theology, free them from foreign control

*Demonstrations, protests, fervor*

1979: Ayatollah Khomeini led revolution

“Islamic Republic of Iran” = theocracy ruled by Shia clergy

Political, cultural, social transformation

islamic republic of iran
Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Mosques = government offices, places of worship, local police; all Iranians forced to register
  • Purge Iran of Western influences
  • Women forced to wear head scarves
  • Family Protection Act abolished
  • Minimum marriage age was 13, polygyny, divorce at will
  • 10 year war against Iraq
  • Struggle: moderate democrats v. conservative fundamentalists
afghanistan
Afghanistan
  • 1800’s
    • British supported leaders
    • Modernization (built roads, etc.)
    • Unify/pacify ethnic groups
  • 1920’s-30’s
    • Economic development & democracy failed
    • Soviet Union supported Marxist movements
  • 1970’s
    • Soviet Union sponsored 2 successful coups
resistance forms
Resistance forms
  • Afghanistan ethnic groups: Pashtuns (47%), Tajiks, Uzbeks, Turkmen, Kirghiz, Hazara, Baluchis, Sunni (88%), Shia (12%)
  • Mujahidin = “holy warriors” launched jihad (holy war) against Soviet-sponsored govt.
  • 1979: Soviet Union invaded AF to repress resist.
    • West gave financial & military aid to Mujahidin
    • Afghans fled to Pakistan
    • Soviets withdrew
  • 1980’s-90’s
    • Islamic & ethnic groups fought for power
    • West w/drew support from Mujahidin, fearing revolution like Iran
taliban emerges
Taliban emerges
  • Taliban = “religious students”
    • 1994 Islamic faction
    • Afghan religious students recruited from schools in Pakistan
    • Militia gained control over most of Afghanistan
    • Strict Islamic guidelines & norms
      • No music, dancing, singing, kite flying, cards, chess, etc
      • Men can’t trim beards, women wear burqas
    • Al Qaeda supports Taliban
      • Headed by Osama Bin Laden = Saudi multi-millionaire terrorist
take home messages
Take-home messages
  • We must interpret multiple forms of Islam with respect to local cultural, historical, & political contexts
  • No essential “Islamic tradition”
  • Islamic fundamentalisms have emerged within the context of: Western colonialism, Western imperialism & internal factional, sectarian, and class differences
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