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Research is part of theperceptual process of scientists or those who engage in inquiry as part of science.
It is done by people, who typically are members of organizations and who receive support from funding and other agencies —to understand it we must understand those people, organizations and agencies.
From examining research we will learn as much about the researcher as the researched.
The perceptions resulting from research (e.g., data, theories) produce findings not “facts.” Those findings are only valuable or useful for you to the degree you decide that the methods by which they were acquired are valid for your needs.
People, institutions, culture, technology
The knowledge — findings or “data,” theories, models
Paradigms — the framework of beliefs within which science is conducted
Paradigms consist of
Ontology — our beliefs about the characteristics of the empirical world
Epistemology — our beliefs about how we can reasonably inquire about that world
Methodology — the methods we use to conduct that inquiry
Purpose & Goals — why we do it & what we hope to achieve
Basic approaches to paradigmatic change and knowledge development
The evolutionary model (knowledge in science is accumulative; Karl Popper).
The revolutionary model (knowledge in science is replaced in the process of transition;Thomas Kuhn).
Less extreme & complex combinations of the two; Larry Laudan
YouTube presented for Google (42min) www.youtube.com/watch?v=F0sLuRsu1Do
The human brain consists of neural cells that process information. Each cell works like a simple processor and only the massive interaction between all cells and their parallel processing makes the brain's abilities possible. A neuron consists of a core, dendrites for incoming information and an axon with dendrites for outgoing information that is passed to connected neurons. Information is transported between neurons in form of electrical stimulations along the dendrites. Incoming information that reaches the dendrites is added up and then delivered along the axon to the dendrites, where the information is passed to other neurons if it has exceeded a certain threshold. In this case, the neuron is activated. If the incoming stimulation is too low, the information will not be transported any further and the neuron is inhibited. The connections between the neurons areadaptive--the connection structure is changing dynamically.Learning ability of the human brain is based on this adaptation.
Gurney (1996) www.shef.ac.uk/psychology/gurney/notes/index.html
Parallel constraint satisfactionnetworkmodel of suicide
And again beware
Online calculator for many simple descriptive stats & analyses www.graphpad.com/quickcalcs/
OK for many common analyses, particularly good for management www.minitab.com/en-US/products/minitab/default.aspx