Green algae
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Green Algae. Domain Eukarya Kingdom Plantae Phylum Chlorophyta. Looking Back at Bio 115. Cellular Structure (cell = unit of life)…one or many! Metabolism = Homeostasis (PSN, Resp, N 2 fix, ferment, etc.) Growth = irreversible change in size Reproduction…failure = extinction

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Green Algae

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Green algae

Green Algae

Domain Eukarya

Kingdom Plantae

Phylum Chlorophyta


Looking back at bio 115

Looking Back at Bio 115

Cellular Structure (cell = unit of life)…one or many!

Metabolism = Homeostasis (PSN, Resp, N2fix, ferment, etc.)

Growth = irreversible change in size

Reproduction…failure = extinction

Acclimatization-short term responses = behavior

Adaptation-long term responses = evolution

The Organism as a Unit of Life


Shifting kingdoms

Lumpers

Splitters

Plantae

Protista

Plantae

Shifting Kingdoms


How many kingdoms

8

5

3

2

1

Extant

How Many Kingdoms?

Multicellular Animals

Archezoans

Slime Molds

Archaebacteria

Protozoans

Bryophytes

Myxozoans

True Fungi

Chrysophytes

Tracheophytes

Euglenoids

Brown Algae

Bacteria

Red algae

Green Algae

Kingdom Plantae is a clade

Extinct

Long Time with

Prokaryotes only

Original Cell


Green algae

Plants as a Clade

  • Photosynthetic Organisms: Unifying features

    • Cellulose walls glued together with pectin

    • Chlorophyll a and b, xanthophylls, carotenoids

    • Store starch

    • Standard plant chloroplasts, mitochondria, golgi, etc.

    • Most have Diplohaplontic (sporic) life history

    • Most have Oogamous gametes


Green algae

No multicellular diploid: haplontic

No multicellular haploid: diplontic

SYNGAMY

mitosis

differentiation

1N

2N

differentiation

mitosis

MEIOSIS

Generic Life Cycle

gametes

zygote

germination

gametangia

mitosis

differentiation

Gametophyte

Sporophyte

differentiation

sporangium

mitosis

germination

spores

sporocyte

When both haploid and diploid multicellular bodies are formed the life cycle is diplohaplontic


Green algae

+

¢

¢

Evolution of Gametes for Syngamy:

Isogametes - Anisogametes - Oogametes

Evolution of Life Histories: multicellularity and sex

Unicellular (neither diplontic or haplontic…but taking both “shortcuts”)

Diplontic (no multicellular haploid)

Haplontic (no multicellular diploid)

Diplohaplontic (both haploid and diploid multicellular forms)

Sequence unclear: elaborations vs reductions?

Multiple pathways in different groups?


Green algae

cell wall

vacuole

cell membrane

cytosol

mitochondria

chloroplast

nucleus

Outgroup for your cladogram: Chlorella

http://www.lifesciences.napier.ac.uk/JK/algalweb/chlorell-b2.jpg

starch


Green algae

Chlamydomonas

flagella

contractile vacuole

eyespot

http://www.unap.cl/~cbrieba/common/chlamydomonas.jpg

cellulosic wall

nucleus

cell membrane

mitochondria

cytosol

starch

chloroplast

pyrenoid

http://universe-review.ca/I10-23-chlamydomonas.jpg


Green algae

http://www.isis.de/members/~ralfwagner/Bilder/Chlamydomonas_spec_Zygote.jpg

Chlamydomonas cells of opposite mating type join in syngamy to form a zygote which develops a thick wall as a hypnospore.

Upon return to better conditions, the zygote undergoes meiosis and releases flagellated cells of both mating types.

http://www.biology.wustl.edu/faculty/images/goodenoughcaption.jpg


Green algae

http://www.isis.de/members/~ralfwagner/Bilder/Chlamydomonas_spec_Zygote.jpg

http://www.biology.wustl.edu/faculty/images/goodenoughcaption.jpg

SYNGAMY

gametes

zygote

germination

mitosis

gametangia

mitosis

differentiation

differentiation

is it gametic?

(diplontic)

1N

2N

Gametophyte

Sporophyte

definitely zygotic

(haplontic)

differentiation

differentiation

sporangium

mitosis

mitosis

germination

spores

sporocyte

MEIOSIS

http://www.isis.de/members/~ralfwagner/Bilder/Chlamydomonas_spec_Zygote.jpg

Life Cycle of Chlamydomonas

http://www.unap.cl/~cbrieba/common/chlamydomonas.jpg


Green algae

http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imgjan01/Zygote3.jpg

Cosmarium zygotes


Green algae

Life Cycle of Cosmarium

http://www.isis.de/members/~ralfwagner/Bilder/Cosmarium_tetraophthalmus.jpg

http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imgjan01/Zygote3.jpg

http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imgjan01/Zygote3.jpg

SYNGAMY

gametes

zygote

germination

mitosis

gametangia

mitosis

differentiation

differentiation

is it gametic?

(diplontic)

1N

2N

Gametophyte

Sporophyte

definitely zygotic

(haplontic)

differentiation

differentiation

sporangium

mitosis

mitosis

germination

spores

sporocyte

MEIOSIS

http://www.isis.de/members/~ralfwagner/Bilder/Cosmarium_tetraophthalmus.jpg


Green algae

Ulva lactuca thallus

http://bio59000.free.fr/Photosbio59000/Biovegetale/Algues/Ulva%20lactuca.gif


Green algae

syngamy

zygote

+

+

+

meiosis

+

Ulva life cycle

There are three isomorphic thalli:

isogametes

Some species of Ulva are anisogamous.

settles on substrate

1N

2N

Gametophytes

Sporophyte

settle on substrate

holdfast

sporocyte

Since they are motile, they are also called zoospores.

The life cycle is:

sporic: diplohaplontic

gametic: diplontic

zygotic: haplontic

The meiospores made by the sporophyte are of two mating types.


Green algae

Codium

http://massbay.mit.edu/exoticspecies/exoticmaps/images/codium_big.jpg


Green algae

syngamy

zygote

meiosis

The life cycle is:

Codium Life Cycle

sporic: diplohaplontic

gametic: diplontic

zygotic: haplontic

1N

2N

Sporophytes

2 sexes

anisogametes

holdfast

sporangium

sporocytes

zoospores


Green algae

Oedogonium thallus

http://www.plingfactory.de/Science/GruKlaOeko/Teichleben/Algen/Oedogonium%20sp..jpg


Green algae

Oedogonium

Here the filaments are out of focus.

The asexual zoospore is in focus.

http://www.botit.botany.wisc.edu/images/130/Chlorophyta/Oedogonium_Images/Zoospore_MC.low.jpg


Green algae

Oogonium

http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/__data/page/1810/Oedogonium.gif


Green algae

http://www.csupomona.edu/~jcclark/classes/bot125/resource/graphics/g/chl_oedogonium.jpg

Oedogonium

This is the zoospore, or maybe it is the sperm. Both have the same look!

http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/fo44/18.jpg

When both oogonium and antheridium appear on the same filament the alga is homothallic.


Green algae

syngamy

meiosis

Oedogonium Life Cycle

Since antheridia and oogonia are on the same filaments, this species is homothallic.

zygote (hypnospore)

(in oogonium)

sperm

empty antheridia

1N

2N

egg

(in oogonium)

chemotaxis

Vegetative zoospores can clone the gametophyte

The zygote divides meiotically to release 4 zoospores.

Zoospores settle down with a holdfast and grow into a filament.

This life cycle is haplontic (zygotic).


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