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PLATO & ARISTOTLE. Greek Science. OBJECTIVES. Know and understand the basics of Plato's philosophy. Know and understand the basics of Aristotle's philosophy. Know the importance and influence of Plato and Aristotle's philosophy in the field of science and human thinking in general.

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Plato aristotle

PLATO & ARISTOTLE

Greek Science


Objectives
OBJECTIVES

Know and understand the basics of Plato's philosophy.

Know and understand the basics of Aristotle's philosophy.

Know the importance and influence of Plato and Aristotle's philosophy in the field of science and human thinking in general.

Know the significance of Plato and Aristotle's philosophy in your daily life.


Plato aristotle1
Plato & Aristotle

School of Athens, by Raphael


Plato
PLATO

Pupil of Socrates

Influenced by Socrates' death

Set up his own school known as the "Academy"

one of the greatest and most influential thinker of all time.


Background of his thought
BACKGROUND OF HIS THOUGHT

1. From Natural Philosophy to Philosophy of Man and Society

Natural Philosophy - Thales, Anaximenes, Anaximander, Parmenides, Heraclitus, Democritus

- Main Question: "What is the underlying stuff of nature?"

Philosophy of Man and Society - Sophists and Socrates

- Main Questions: "Who are we? What is virtue? What is Justice?"


Background of his thought1
BACKGROUND OF HIS THOUGHT

2. Both Trends are concerned with the existence of the "eternal and immutable."

Natural Philosophy - "ONE in the many"

Philosophy of Man and Society - "NORMS of the society"

3. Concern of Plato: He was also concerned with the relationship between what is "eternal and immutable", on the one hand, and what "flows", on the other.

-Same as the Natural Philosophers and Humanists.

-But he answered it differently.


How plato came up with his idea
HOW PLATO CAME UP WITH HIS IDEA

"Although everything in the natural world "flows", there must nevertheless be "something" that never changes."

Now the question is,"where can we find that non-changing 'something'?"


How plato came up with his idea1
HOW PLATO CAME UP WITH HIS IDEA

World of Things (Nature)

Perceptible

Perishable

within time and space

it flows


How plato came up with his idea2
HOW PLATO CAME UP WITH HIS IDEA

"where can we find that non-changing 'something'?"

Obviously, "It must be beyond the realm of things."

-It must be perceived only by reason

-immaterial and non-perishable

-outside time and space

-eternal and immutable

For Plato, it is found in the realm of Ideas


Plato s doctrine of ideas
PLATO'S DOCTRINE OF IDEAS

For Plato all Material things are fashioned after their timeless "ideas or forms."

Despite their differences, why are toy horses all the same?

Why is a toy horse a toy horse?

what is there in all toy horses that makes them all toy horses?


Plato s doctrine of ideas1
PLATO'S DOCTRINE OF IDEAS

If you are to make toy horses:

you use models of horses

you have in your mind the "forms" of horses.

this form or idea of a toy horse allows you to make several toy horses.

despite their differences, all toy horses are toy horses.

Therefore, what makes a toy horse a toy horse is the idea of a toy horse.


Plato s doctrine of ideas2
PLATO'S DOCTRINE OF IDEAS

Thus for Plato, "The realm of Ideas is the foundation of the realm of things."

IDEAS

THINGS

ART


True knowledge
TRUE KNOWLEDGE

what is known in the realm of things are mere "opinions"

- we only use sense perception

-ex. who is the most beautiful actress?

what is known in the realm of ideas are "true knowledge"

- we use reason

-ex. mathematics, geometry, philosophical ideas

"We can only have 'inexact conception' of things we perceive with our senses. But we can have 'true knowledge' of things we understand with our reason."


The cave allegory
The Cave Allegory

WORLD OF THINGS

(SHADOWS)


The cave allegory1
The Cave Allegory

things are but shadows of ideas or eternal forms

we need to go beyond the shadows and dwell on the realm of ideas.

ideas let us understand the natural world


We only recollect ideas
WE ONLY RECOLLECT IDEAS

We already know ideas before, all we need is to just remember them.

We remember the ideas in the copies (things).

IDEA OF A HORSE


Aristotle 384 322
ARISTOTLE (384—322)

He was a pupil at Plato's Academy

Before going to Athens, we lived in Macedonia

Son of the famous physician Nicomachus

Last great Greek Philosopher, but first great biologist of Europe


Aristotle 384 3221
ARISTOTLE (384—322)

Unlike Plato, he was preoccupied with natural processes (world of things) and not with the world of ideas.

He was "the great organizer."

He tutored (342—c.339 ) Alexander the Great

In 335 he opened a school in the Lyceum; some distinguished members of the Academy followed him.


Nature is the real world
NATURE IS THE REAL WORLD...

The "idea" of something is simply a concept that we humans formed after seeing a certain number of that thing.

“Ideas” are just the "common characteristics" of things belonging into a certain group.

“Ideas” are just reflections of natural objects.


Nature is the real world1
NATURE IS THE REAL WORLD...

For Aristotle, "Nothing exists in the mind that has not first been experienced by the senses."

Simply, "There is no such thing as a separate world of ideas."


Causality in nature
CAUSALITY IN NATURE

Modern/popular notion of cause: how something came to be

example:

RAIN

- the moisture in the clouds cools and condenses into raindrops that are drawn to the earth by the force of gravity.

For Aristotle, this is incomplete.


Causality in nature1
CAUSALITY IN NATURE

THERE ARE ALWAYS 4 CAUSES OF A THING:

1. Material Cause - material component

2. Efficient Cause - that which makes the thing (external agent)

3. Formal Cause - that which makes a thing what it is

4. Final cause - purpose for which the thing is made.


Causality in nature2
CAUSALITY IN NATURE

Example: RAIN

1. Material Cause - moisture

2. Efficient Cause - cooling air

3. Formal Cause - form or nature of water - to fall to the earth

4. Final Cause - its purpose is to nourish the earth and its dwellers.*

In modern thought the efficient cause is generally considered the central explanation of a thing, but for Aristotle the final cause had primacy.


Everything can be categorized
EVERYTHING CAN BE CATEGORIZED

Every object falls under a broader category and a certain subcategory

This also applies in the sciences

Science is divided into different branches and that such branches are parts of one coherent whole.

Physics

Biology

Psychology

Logic

Ethics

Politics

Metaphysics


Logic
LOGIC

One of Aristotle's major contribution to human knowledge

Found in his Organon

Logic is an instrument used for organizing our thoughts

based on correlation of terms


Logic1
LOGIC

ex. (Syllogism)

All creatures are mortals

Gloria is a creature

Gloria is a mortal

Clear thinking that leads to a definitely true conclusion.


Plato aristotle in general
Plato & Aristotle in General

True Knowledge is found “above”, in the world of ideas.

  • True Knowledge is found “here”, in the world of things.


Questions to ponder
Questions to Ponder

What are the contributions of the two great philosophers to science?

How can we use their philosophies in our practical daily living?


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