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GLOBAL CULTURE. Chapter 7 Lecture 1. ALFRED NORTH WHITEHEAD. THE MAJOR ADVANCES IN CIVILIZATION ARE PROCESSES THAT ALL BUT WRECK THE SOCIETIES IN WHICH THEY OCCUR. CULTURE DEFINED. The learned, shared, interrelated set of symbols and patterns of basic assumptions

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Global culture

GLOBAL CULTURE

Chapter 7

Lecture 1


Alfred north whitehead

ALFRED NORTH WHITEHEAD

THE MAJOR ADVANCES IN CIVILIZATION ARE PROCESSES THAT ALL BUT WRECK THE SOCIETIES IN WHICH THEY OCCUR.


Culture defined
CULTURE DEFINED

  • The learned, shared, interrelated set of symbols and patterns of basic assumptions

  • That are invented, discovered, or developed by a given group (nation, affiliative group, business or other organization)

  • To help the group cope with problems it faces

    • external adaptation

    • internal integration


Maslow s hierarchy of needs
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

  • People face needs in their lives

  • According to Maslow, lower level needs generally must be satisfied before higher ones

Self-actualization

Esteem

Social

Safety

Physical


How does culture emerge
HOW DOES CULTURE EMERGE?

  • People have common needs and face similar challenges, and form societies to address these challenges

    organizing as families and extended families then as

    communities and extended communities then as

    rural and urban groups

    national societies or nation-states

    global society?


National culture answers iinternal challenges
NATIONAL CULTURE ANSWERS IINTERNAL CHALLENGES

  • Division of labor

  • Social controls

  • Motivate group members

  • Legitimize and distribute power

  • Create sense of belonging

Us

Them


National culture answers iinternal challenges1
NATIONAL CULTURE ANSWERS IINTERNAL CHALLENGES

  • Protect the group from outsiders and natural forces

  • Protect resources

  • Present an image to others

  • Attract (or repel) new members

Us

Them


National culture
NATIONAL CULTURE

  • Forms a boundary to define the group

    • geographic and psychological

  • Makes “us” different from everyone else

    • all other people; all other nations

  • Defines “us” as different from “them”

    • “they” tend to be those least like us

  • Survival value (for the nation and person)


When describing national culture most people are talking about dominant culture
When describing national culture, most people are talking about dominant culture

  • But bear in mind:

    • there will be variations

    • there are subcultures within every nation

    • almost everyone knows the norms of the dominant culture

    • typically only members of subcultures know the norms of their own group


The nine nations of north america
THE NINE NATIONS OF NORTH AMERICA about dominant culture

  • Ecotopia—Northwest Corridor

  • MexAmerica, Texas, Southern Calif., Arizona

  • Dixie—southern states

  • The Islands, S. Florida and the Caribbean



But influences come from multiple sources
BUT INFLUENCES COME FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES about dominant culture

  • Professional training/groups

  • Family

  • Subgroups, e.g., R&D or accounting

  • Individuals


Increasingly we also see
INCREASINGLY WE ALSO SEE about dominant culture

  • Business influences come not from domestic influences alone but also from international and global business activities, e.g.,

    • subsidiaries

    • joint ventures and other strategic alliances


Often creating culture clash
OFTEN CREATING CULTURE CLASH about dominant culture

  • between parent and subsidiary

  • among managers

  • in practices considered “unnatural” to the subsidiary


Cultural questions you might consider answering
CULTURAL QUESTIONS YOU MIGHT CONSIDER ANSWERING about dominant culture

  • What cultural norms do you see in yourself? In the people who surround you on a daily basis?

  • Give an example of when you have experienced a different culture. What was it like?

  • What is it that other cultures have to offer to the global environment?

  • What is the public opinion about foreign cultures and international business operations? How might these opinions be skewed?

  •  Is it possible to see different cultures close to home (i.e. in the same city, state, country)?

  • What are the benefits and/or consequences of integrating/not integrating global cultures?


How is cultue embedded in people and organizations
HOW IS CULTUE EMBEDDED IN PEOPLE AND ORGANIZATIONS? about dominant culture

THINK OF CULTURE AS AN ICEBERG:

you see it, but perhaps not the important parts

Symbols; language

Behaviors

Practices

Customs

Norms

beliefs, traditions, priorities, assumptions, values


Culture
CULTURE about dominant culture

  • Values

    • Deep seated, lasting, don’t change much

    • Stable over time

  • Norms

    • Social rules and guidelines

    • Mores—things central to the smooth operation of society

    • Folkways—routine patterns


National culture shapes values
NATIONAL CULTURE SHAPES VALUES about dominant culture

  • Cultural contrasts:

    • Tradition versus change

    • Past versus future

    • Purpose of life

      • Nurture the human spirit versus create wealth

    • Modesty versus boasting

    • Doing versus being


National culture has dimensions
NATIONAL CULTURE HAS DIMENSIONS about dominant culture

  • Hofstede’s view of national culture reflected in organizations

    • POWER DISTANCE—extent to which society accepts that power is distributed unequally in institutions and organizations

    • UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE—likes formal rules; absolute truths

    • MASCULINITY/FEMININITY—masculine is assertive, acquisitive, values money and things and not caring for others, quality of life or people; whereas, femininity is nurturing and valuing quality of life

    • INDIVIDUALISM/COLLECTIVISM—individual takes care of self and family and is low on organizational loyalty; collectivism is in-group or clan responsibility loyalty is “owed” to the group

    • LONG TERM vs SHORT TERM ORIENTATION


Fons trompenaars 1994
FONS TROMPENAARS (1994) about dominant culture

  • Universalism—belief that ideas and concepts can be applied anywhere versus particularism—belief that circumstances dictate rules and relationships

  • Individualism (self) or collectivism (group)

  • Achievement (made) or ascription (born)

  • Neutral—mask feelings or affective—feelings are a normal part of communication

  • Sequential approach to time or synchronous


And national culture shapes behaviors
AND NATIONAL CULTURE SHAPES BEHAVIORS about dominant culture

  • how people look

  • how people act

  • how people speak

  • the symbols that surround them

  • how people interact


Culture creates expectations
CULTURE CREATES EXPECTATIONS about dominant culture

  • What happens when people do not behave as you expect?


But how people act doesn t explain why
BUT HOW PEOPLE ACT DOESN’T EXPLAIN WHY about dominant culture

  • Because specific actions, behaviors, symbols, and meanings are intended to resolve problems for a specific society

  • And societies

    • face different challenges

    • respond to the same challenges with different solutions


This exercise demonstrates how
THIS EXERCISE DEMONSTRATES HOW about dominant culture

  • Each person in the group should describe their views on attitudes listed on the left hand side according to their own country/culture. How are those attitudes reflected in behaviors at work? For example, in the U.S., how is an emphasis on wealth/materialism reflected in work rewards? You are encouraged to distinguish between what we have called the “dominant” culture and any subcultures in which you live so that people in your group develop a better understanding of the wide range of culture found within nations as well as between nations.


National culture shapes values1
NATIONAL CULTURE SHAPES VALUES about dominant culture

  • ROLE OF WEALTH IN LIFE

  • IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL SPACE

  • ATTITUDE TOWARD TIME

  • ROLE OF FAMILY

  • ROLE OF WORK

  • ROLE OF FRIENDS IN LIFE

  • WHAT ARE LIFE’S PRIORITIES?


National cultures compared
NATIONAL CULTURES COMPARED about dominant culture

  • Describe what you learned about another culture that you did not know before talking with others

  • What can we learn from the exercise?

  • What are the things you value and find important in terms of work?


10 ten first languages
10 TEN about dominant cultureFIRST LANGUAGES

  • 1 in 6 people speak Mandarin (1 billion)

    • English: 380 million

    • Spanish: 266 million

    • Bengali: 189 million

    • Hindi: 182 million

    • Portuguese: 170

    • Russian: 170

    • Japanese: 125

    • German 98

    • Chinese (Wu): 77


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