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Exploring PACT Academic Language Instruction Across Disciplines. A Look at Two Cases: Teaching English & Math. P. Holmes, A. Mendle & B. Merino University of California, Davis. Research Questions:.
A Look at Two Cases: Teaching English & Math.
P. Holmes, A. Mendle & B. Merino University of California, Davis.
“An embodied understanding of practice rather than attributes, forms the basis for professional skill & development”. (Dall’Alba & Sandberg, 2006, p.30)
1. Novel vocabulary – both specific Holocaust terms and general words, requires constant awareness of challenging terms- restatements, synonyms, context all used to reinforce meaning
2. Anticipation Guide procedures – “anticipate,” purpose, directions
3. Similes – reinforcing literary term presented earlier in year
4. “Connections,” “Comments” & “Text” (presented through cell phone text messaging!) – key terms of new reading strategies
5. Writing complete sentences – formal and informal opportunities in lessons
6. Use of quotation marks when making connections on worksheet
7. Using new reading and response strategies effectively – multiple reinforcements and scaffolds, discussion protocol
8. ELD standards part of each day’s plans
9. Visuals for handouts and key concepts to support understanding
1. Holocaust background - PowerPoint notes and children’s book to discuss key vocabulary and historical period; whiteboard responses to
2. Key vocabulary introduction in context (worksheet for future reference) – definitions, pictures, and book sentences
3. Door pass with 3 facts students have learned about the Holocaust
1. Review of key Holocaust elements with PPt. slides, identification cards about lives of young people lost in the Holocaust
2. Anticipation Guide about key issues – individual responses and class discussion, then a written paragraph taking a position
3. Introduction of “making connections” strategy – focus on “text to self” with sentence starters for those who need support
4. Begin oral reading of novel, teacher modeling “text to self” connections, students required to make one connection after chapter one
1. Reading of second children’s book as preview to new novel chapter – introduces concept of “text to text” connections
2. Chapter Two reading with “text to self” connections – guide on overhead
3. “One question; One comment” activity – overhead to guide students’ writing; whole class participates in student-led discussion
2007-2008 Academic Language Category – Passed
E10: How does the candidate describe student language development in relation to the language demands of the learning tasks and assessments? 3
“The candidate has a unique ability to assess the content she will teach, identify language challenges, and provide scaffolds to address these challenges. This may be seen at the word-level (”text,” “personal experience,” “connection,” etc.), the concept/schema level (need for pre-teaching Holocaust history), and practical level (multiple modalities for imparting instructions, etc.). She is familiar with her students’ various ability levels based on multiple measures (CELDT, STAR, IEP’s, written work, observation, etc.) and both their independent and scaffolded levels of performance.” (Candidate did not reach Score 4 because of missing discussion of vision of how these lessons/skills fit into broader disciplinary content.)
E11: How do the candidate’s planning, instruction, and assessment support academic language development?3
“The candidate uses multiple scaffolds. She models activities using visuals (Powerpoint, overhead transparencies, etc.), gives students opportunities for oral and written practice (”One Question/One Comment” discussion, “Anticipation Guide” paragraph), and gives students both oral and written feedback (discussion evaluation/clarifying questions, comments on “Making Connections” handout). She is intentional and articulate about why she selected these strategies and planned them in the order that she did. She has plans for more advanced students, but does not make clear how she will enhance/remove scaffolds for currently- struggling learners.” (Prevents score of 4)
1. Academic language development understanding can be attained at a high level by new teachers, with support of resident teachers and methods presented in education courses
2. Working directly with English learners accelerates understanding of how to implement strategies to support Academic Language development
3. Use clips from this case to demonstrate strong Academic Language instruction
4. Introduce children’s books as preview of issues in grade level texts
“It is my job to make sure my students continually have experiences where they practice academic language that they have learned and encounter new academic language.” (Task 5 excerpt)
… from the Candidate
Task 1 excerpt