. Ethical Decision MakingApplying general values and ethical principles inconcrete circumstances in order to justify aparticular decision or course of action.awarenessjudgment and deliberation . Basic Ethical Values for Business? . TrustHonestyFairnessAutonomy/FreedomImpartialityIntegrityBeneficenceAuthorityProperty.
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1. Ethical Decision Making and Ethical Theory MGMT 491
Management Ethics in a Global Environment
Jeffery D. Smith
3. Basic Ethical Values for Business? Trust
4. Sample Correlative Principles One ought to negotiate in good faith
Honor your agreements
Compensation should be based on merit
Customer data should be kept private
Provide sound advice to clients
Respect your organization’s mission statement
Support local communities when downsizing
Obey all environmental regulations
Respect the trade secrets of competitors
Ethical Decision Making is not algorithmic
Ethical Decision Making often involves a use of principles that are not subjective
Ethical Decision Making is characteristically not simply self-interested
Ethical Decision Making often involves a use of principles that are not socially or culturally relative
7. “Principles and Priorities”: A 6 Step Procedure 1: Identify and Define the Problem
2: Analyze the Principles Relevant to the Problem
3: Analyze what Principles are the Most Decisive
4: Evaluate the Analysis in (1)-(3)
5: Make a Decision Expressing the Priorities
6: Assess the Consequences of Your Decision
10. John S. Mill (1806-1873)
11. Deontology deontological: the logic or science of duty
deon=duty logos=logic (sometimes science)
A deontological ethical theory is one which holds that some acts are ethically required independently of their consequences.
Generally speaking, we are obliged to refrain from killing, stealing, lying, etc., regardless of whether refraining from these things promotes, for example, human happiness, welfare, or preference satisfaction.
12. Immanuel Kant
13. Actions are ethically right in so far as they are motivated by a good will.
A good will is a will that is moved by reason and not wishes, desires, and preferences
Ethical principles are imperatives, or commands of reason
14. The 2 Formulas of Kant's Categorical Imperative
Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law. (universal law formula)
Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only. (humanity formula)
15. Universal Law Formula
1. Form a maxim
2. Universalize the maxim
3. Determine rational acceptability
16. Humanity Formula
Humans have inherent dignity and incomparable worth because they are rational creatures, capable of autonomy
Never use the rational capacities of another human being to further your own interests.
The inherent dignity and incomparable worth of humans demands basic rights or core entitlements.
17. Virtue Ethics An emphasis on the traits, dispositions, and inclinations needed to lead a life of moderation that balances the ends of overlapping roles and relationships in a community.
Aristotle (384-322 BC)
Virtue=arete (or excellence)