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Data exclusivity, patents and registration of medicines PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Data exclusivity, patents and registration of medicines. Karin Timmermans. TWN Regional Workshop Kuala Lumpur on bilateral trade agreements Aug. 2005. I. Data exclusivity - what is it, and what are its implications? - does TRIPS require it?

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Data exclusivity, patents and registration of medicines

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Data exclusivity, patents and

registration of medicines

Karin Timmermans

TWN Regional Workshop Kuala Lumpur

on bilateral trade agreements Aug. 2005


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  • I.Data exclusivity

  • - what is it, and

  • what are its implications?

  • - does TRIPS require it?

  • Data exclusivity/linkage in FTAs

  • - what is happening?

  • - what are the options for

  • damage control?


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Medicines are subject to two sets of rules:

Intellectual property rights

The right to exclude

But not the right to market or to use


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Medicines are subject to two sets of rules:

Intellectual property rights

Registration requirements

The right to exclude

Authorization to put a medicine on the market

But not the right to market or to use


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Medicines are among the most regulated products on the market

There are good reasons for the extensive regulatory intervention in pharmaceutical markets


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Reasons for regulating medicines:

  • Market failure, especially information imbalance between manufacturers, prescribers and consumers;

  • Ineffective or dangerous medicines may undermine confidence in the entire health care system;

  • Money spent on ineffective or dangerous medicines is wasted;

  • Misuse of certain medicines (such as antibiotics) can have serious implications for the individual and for public health.


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Registration objective:

To protect public health by ensuring the quality safety and efficacy of medicines available on the market


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Registration criteria:

Quality – Safety – Efficacy


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Registration criteria:

Quality – Safety – Efficacy

Quality control

(testing samples)

Quality assurance:

(procedures, e.g. GMP)


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Registration criteria:

Quality – Safety – Efficacy

Preclinical and clinical trials


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Registration criteria:

Quality – Safety – Efficacy

Preclinical and clinical trials

or

Bioequivalence


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Registration criteria:

Quality – Safety – Efficacy

Preclinical and clinical trials

(original)

or

Bioequivalence

(generics)


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Data exclusivity:

During the data exclusivity period,

Authorities may not rely on those data to register generic equivalents.


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As long as data exclusivity lasts:

Generic manufacturers will have to submit their own data to prove safety and efficacy

=> They will have to repeat the clinical trials and other tests

Alternatively, they can only enter the market after expiry of the data exclusivity period


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When is data exclusivity important?


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1. NCEs, standard situation:

Registration; market entry

End patent term

Patent


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1. NCEs, standard situation:

Registration; market entry

End patent term

Patent

Data exclusivity


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1. NCEs, standard situation:

Registration; market entry

End patent term

Patent

Data exclusivity

During this period, generics may not be able to enter the market, even when a CL has been issued

?


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1. NCEs, standard situation:

Registration; market entry

End patent term

Patent

Data exclusivity

During this period, generics may not be able to enter the market, even when a CL has been issued

?


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1. NCEs, standard situation:

Registration; market entry

End patent term

Patent

Data exclusivity

During this period, generics may not be able to enter the market, even when a CL has been issued

?


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1. NCEs, standard situation:

Registration; market entry

End patent term

Patent

Data exclusivity

During this period, generics may not be able to enter the market, even when a CL has been issued

?


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1. NCEs, standard situation:

Registration; market entry

End patent term

Patent

Data exclusivity

During this period, generics may not be able to enter the market, even when a CL has been issued

?


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2. Second indication:

Registration; market entry

End patent term

Patent

Data exclusivity


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2. Second indication:

Registration 2nd indication

Registration; market entry

End patent term

Patent

Data exclusivity


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2. Second indication:

Registration 2nd indication

Registration; market entry

End patent term

Patent

Data exclusivity

Data exclusivity

=> If data exclusivity is allowed for 2nd/subsequent indications: additional delay for generic market entry


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3. When there is no patent:

  • When the drug is not new

  • No patent law, or patents not granted for pharmaceuticals


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Article 39.3

Members, when requiring, as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical or of agricultural chemical products which utilize new chemical entities, the submission of undisclosed test or other data, the origination of which involves a considerable effort, shall protect such data against unfair commercial use. In addition, Members shall protect such data against disclosure, except where necessary to protect the public, or unless steps are taken to ensure that the data are protected against unfair commercial use.


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Article 39.3

Members, when requiring, as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical or of agricultural chemical products which utilize new chemical entities, the submission of undisclosed test or other data, the origination of which involves a considerable effort, shall protect such data against unfair commercial use. In addition, Members shall protect such data against disclosure, except where necessary to protect the public, or unless steps are taken to ensure that the data are protected against unfair commercial use.


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Article 39.3

Members, when requiring, as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical or of agricultural chemical products which utilize new chemical entities, the submission of undisclosed test or other data, the origination of which involves a considerable effort, shall protect such data against unfair commercial use. In addition, Members shall protect such data against disclosure, except where necessary to protect the public, or unless steps are taken to ensure that the data are protected against unfair commercial use.


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Undisclosed data about New Chemical Entities

should be protected:

  • against unfair commercial use

  • against disclosure


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  • Thus:

  • Publication of such data is not allowed,

  • except when necessary to protect the public.

  • Authorities are not to share these data (for instance with generic companies).


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“Unfair commercial use”

Does the Drug Regulatory Authority actually use the data??

- Often not; the DRA may not even have the data;

- Even if the DRA does use the data, it is not commercial use.


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Data exclusivity creates additional barriers to access to medicines.

TRIPS Article 39.3 does NOT require data exclusivity,

and national laws do not need to provide data exclusivity.


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Another unnecessary barrier to access to medicines is the so-called ‘linkage’.

‘Linkage’ means that the DRA cannot register a generic version of a medicine that is still protected by a patent

Thus, it indirectly turns a DRA into a ‘patent police’.


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Data exclusivity in FTAs


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Overview recent US FTAs


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Overview recent US FTAs


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Overview recent US FTAs


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Overview recent US FTAs


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Overview recent US FTAs


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Overview recent US FTAs


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Overview recent US FTAs


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Overview recent US FTAs


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Overview recent US FTAs


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Overview recent US FTAs


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Overview recent US FTAs


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Overview recent US FTAs


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Overview recent US FTAs


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What can countries do – linkage?

  • Follow the European example: refuse any and all type of linkage between registration and patents.

  • Do not ask generic companies to sign statements on patent status or (the absence of) infringement – at most, specify that the company is the sole responsible in case of patent infringement.


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What can countries do – data exclusivity?

  • No Free Trade Agreement

  • Avoid data exclusivity in the FTA (stick to

  • TRIPS wording)

  • Limit the duration of data exclusivity

  • Limit the scope of exclusivity:

  • - only for NCEs

  • - only for undisclosed data

  • - don’t extend it to foreign registration

  • Create national exemption mechanisms


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For this to happen (and to be successful)

We need to be alert,

We need to learn more,

We need to learn faster,

And we need to talk to and convince

our trade negotiators


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Thank you


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Thank you

and good luck!


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