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CHINESE MEDICINE & SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. CURRENT STATE & PERSPECTIVES FOR ENDANGERED SPECIES. (Panthera tigris). Hu Gu. Tiger. 5100 – 7500 individuals (5 subspecies) remaining in the wild. 100 000 in the early XXth century. .

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chinese medicine sustainable development
CHINESE MEDICINE &SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

CURRENT STATE & PERSPECTIVES FOR ENDANGERED SPECIES

tiger

(Panthera tigris)

Hu Gu

Tiger

  • 5100 – 7500 individuals (5 subspecies) remaining in the wild.
  • 100 000 in the early XXth century.
  • 3 subspecies (Bali, Caspian Sea, Javan) lost in the last 60 years.
  • 6 -11kg of dry bone/1tiger. In the early 90’s the average import of tiger bones into some countries could exceed 1.5t/year.
  • Classified as Endangered in the 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species; Listed in Appendix I of CITES. Protected and trade illegal in many countries.
  • Since the middle of the 90’s, governements and TM world, in partnership with NGO’s, became aware of tiger plight, and efforts have been made.
rhinos
Rhinos

Rhinoceros

Xi Jiao

  • Africa : 11300 White Rhinos et 3600 Black rhinos (100 000 black rhinos in the 60’s).
  • Asia : Less than 3000 individuals for the 3 asiatic species together.
  • Black, Javan and Sumatran Rhinos are classified as Critically Endangered in the IUCN Red List; the Indian Rhino is Endangered and the white one, Near Threatened. All Rhinos are in Appendix I of CITES (except south african white rhinos in Appendix II). Protected and trade illegal in many countries.
  • As for the Tiger, progresses have been made since the 90’s.
musk deer
Musk Deer

(Moschus spp.)

She Xiang

  • Global population estimation : 400 000 - 800 000 individuals, divided in at least 4 species.
  • Russian populations have fallen by around 50% in the last 10 years.
  • 120-200 deer hunted for 1 kg of musk.
  • Annual demand for musk in China alone : 500 – 1000 kg ;
  • Farming production : about 50kg/ year.
  • Strong increasing of demand and supply.
  • All species listed in Appendix II of CITES, except the Siberian Musk Deer, in Appendix I and classified as Vulnerable in the 2006 IUCN Red List. Protected in most of the concerned countries.
asiatic black bear
Asiatic Black Bear

(Ursus thibetanus)

Xiong Dan

  • 15 000 individuals in China. Half living in captivity.
  • Farming in Vietnam and Korea.
  • Deplorable conditions of detention, painfull traitement and bile extraction,
  • poaching of wild individuals.
  • Strong increasing of demand and supply.
  • Worlwide bile consumption : 4-5 t / year (500 kg, 25 years ago).
  • Protected species and bile trade is illegal in some countries.
  • Classified as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List, and in Appendix I of CITES.
snow leopard
Snow Leopard

(Uncia uncia)

Bao Gu

  • 4000 – 7000 individuals remaining in 12 countries.
  • Extinct in several areas where it formerly could be found.
  • Leopard products are used as substitute to tiger products.
  • Strong increasing of demand and supply (mostly since the ban on tiger products).
  • Classified as Endangered in the IUCN Red List;
  • listed in Appendix I of CITES.
sa ga antilope
Saïga Antilope

(Saïga tatarica)

Ling Yang Jiao

  • Extinct in China in the 40’s.
  • Population have fallen by around 80-90% in the last 10 years.
  • In some population, proportion of male is only 1% ( normal ratio : 1:4) This leads to a reproductive collapse.
  • Chinese import from 1990 to 1992 represent more than 440 000 individuals (about 1/3 of the population at that time).
  • Classified as Critically Endangered in the IUCN Red List and listed in Appendix II of Cites.
seahorses
Seahorses

(Hippocampus spp.)

Hai Ma

  • Trade in Seahorses boomed in the 80’s.
  • Consumption increases by between 8 and 10 % / year.
  • Because of high demand and decreasing catches, demand far exceeds supplies.
  • Global consumption : at least 25 million individuals/year (70t) in the 2000’s.
  • Populations from several coutries declined by 50 % between 1990 and 1995; South-eastern populations like Phillipines population have slumped by 70% between 1985 et 1995.
  • All Seahorses species with sufficient datas are at least classified as Vulnerable and listed in Appendix II of Cites.
plants
Plants
  • More than 70% of plants collection are made in natural environment. Several species are on the verge of extinction.
  • Unsustainable collection of wild ginseng (Ye Shan Shen). US exports 60t/year of American Ginseng (Xi Yang Shen). Russian and american ginseng are listed in Appendix II of CITES.
  • Licorice root (Gan Cao, Glycyrrhyza sp.) : threaned by unsustainable collection. Growth area deacreased from 50000miles² to 19000miles².

• Costus root (Mu Xiang, Saussurea lappa) is listed in Appendix I of CITES.

slide10

From : Henry, L.A. 2004. A Tale of Two Cities: A Comparative Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine Markets in San Francisco and New York City. TRAFFIC North America. Washington D.C.: World Wildlife Fund.

solutions i
SOLUTIONS (I)
  • Boycott of endangered species
  • Better prevention of diseases
  • Promote other therapeutic methods of TCM
  • Research for development of substitutes coming from global pharmacopoea
solutions ii
SOLUTIONS (II)
  • Increased repression of illegal trade, stronger involvment of governments.
  • Obligation for sensitive products to be available only on prescription.
  • Information to the general public and professionals about the real usefulness of endangered species-based products and their substitutes.
last path
Last Path

Learning and Acting for the Survival of Threatened Plants and Animals used in Traditional Healthcare

Get involved!

sources i
Sources (I)

www.iucnredlist.org

slide16

Sources (II)

www.cites.org/eng/app/appendices.pdf

Henry, L.A. 2004. A Tale of Two Cities: A Comparative Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine Markets in San Francisco and New York City. TRAFFIC North America. Washington D.C.: World Wildlife Fund. (data + tables in diapo 6)

Fratkin, J.P. (2001). Chinese Herbal Patent Medicines, Appendix 6 « reference notes concerning the use of endangered animals, heavy metals and chemical contaminants » pp.1125-1127.

sources iii
Sources (III)

Tiger : http://www.worldwildlife.org/tigers; http://www.traffic.org/factfile/factfile_substitutes.html; http://www.worldwildlife.org/trade/tcm.cfm (left picture: WWF-Canon / Edward Parker); http://www.savethetigerfund.org/trouble/ConservationOrganizations/WWF/wwfcan.htm; L’Expansion n° 602 juillet-aout 1999 « L’Or Sauvage, la guerre économique autour de la protection des animaux »;

Rhinos : http://www.worldwildlife.org/trade/tcm.cfm (left picture: Esmond Bradley Martin ); http://www.rhino-irf.org;

Musk Deer : Homes, V. (1999). On the Scent: Conserving Musk Deer – The Uses of Musk and Europe’s Role in its Trade. TRAFFIC Europe.

http://www.wwf-uk.org/News/n_0000001264.asp (right picture); http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/387033.stm (left picture).

Asiatic Black Bear : Courrier International n°787 « En Asie du Sud-Est les ours se font de la bile », Janet Raloff from Science News;

« IFAW en Action, Sauver les ours à collier d’une vie de torture », 2001. www.terrywhittaker.com/galleries/03bearfarming/03bearfarming.htm (pictures)

slide18

Sources (IV)

Snow Leopard : http://www.worldwildlife.org/snowleopards/ecology.cfm; http://www.animalport.com/extinct-animals/Snow-Leopard.html (right picture); www.snowleopard.org/images/slrolledintarp (left picture).

Saïga Antilope : http://www.heritage.com.sg/prod41.htm (left picture); http://cienciahoje.uol.com.brchdia/galeri31.htm (right picture);http://www.zoologie.vd.ch/1_Actualite/Le_Matin_DCh/AcDCh27_04_03.html;

http://www.wwf.fr/pdf/CPCITES0510.pdf;

http://www.natureetdecouvertes.com/pages/popup/dossier_TS/DTS_11/DTS_11.htm.

Sea Horses : http://seahorse.fisheries.ubc.ca/trade.html; http://seahorse.fisheries.ubc.ca/pdfs/parryjones_and_vincent1998_newscientist.html; http://biology.kenyon.edu/stures/Compsnelson/seadepletion.htm; http://www.samford.edu/schools/artsci/biology/vertzoo-03s/pages/148.htm (right picture); http://www.worldwildlife.org/trade/seahorses.cfm (left picture: WWF-Canon / Jürgen Freund)

Plants : http://www.worldwildlife.org/trade/tcm.cfm; http://www.taoherbfarm.com/herbs/herbs/ulcers.htm (right picture);

http://www.heritage.com.sg/prod40.htm (left picture)

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