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BRIDGES Engineer-It Class Summer 2004 History Primitive Peoples: Logs Slabs of Rocks Intertwined Vines or Ropes Roman Empire—First Great Bridge Builders Timber Truss Bridges Masonry Arch Bridges Europeans Followed HRE Until Iron and Steel Use Nineteenth Century— Modern Long Bridges

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Bridges l.jpg

BRIDGES

Engineer-It Class

Summer 2004


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History

  • Primitive Peoples:

    • Logs

    • Slabs of Rocks

    • Intertwined Vines or Ropes

  • Roman Empire—First Great Bridge Builders

    • Timber Truss Bridges

    • Masonry Arch Bridges

  • Europeans

    • Followed HRE Until Iron and Steel Use

  • Nineteenth Century—

    • Modern Long Bridges

    • Moveable Bridges




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View under RainbowBridge, a massive sandstone bridge in Natural Bridges National Monument, Utah, includes a dried up streambed.

"RainbowBridge, Utah."




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LOG BRIDGE

Members of a Denver and Salt Lake Railroad Company (D&SL) survey crew pose on a logbridge over the Colorado River in Gore Canyon (Grand County), Colorado.


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View of a settlement in (probably) Utah; shows a logbridge, a stream, and houses. People sit on a porch; a United States flag waves from a pole.


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U.S. Army soldiers from the Ohio Engineers, building a small log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois


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LOG BRIDGE log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois

View of hot springs site enclosed by stone and wooden frame buildings, Hot Sulphur Springs, CO


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Covered Bridges log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois


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COVERED log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, IllinoisBRIDGE

  • Bridges. Old covered bridge, Jackson River, Va.


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Structure of covered bridge. Wallingford, Vermont log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois


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Covered Bridge, Glen Canyon, Santa Cruz County, CA log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois


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CONSTRUCTION log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois

  • Must carry own weight and weight of traffic

    • Must withstand force of high winds

    • Must consider effects of contraction and/or

    • Expansion due to temperature changes

    • Most common materials

      • Wood—temporary

      • Steel—for long, strong spans

      • Reinforced concrete—attractive designs but difficult to work with on large bridges

      • Prestressed concrete—stronger than reinforced, cheaper than steel


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TYPES OF BRIDGES log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois

  • Fixed

  • Moveable

  • Other


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Beam or Girder Bridges log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois


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FIXED log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois

  • Beam or Girder

    • Two parallel beams w/ flooring supported by piers

    • Span can be supported by trestle

    • Used for hwy over/underpasses or small stream crossings

    • Example—Covered Bridge


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Cars on a suspension log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinoisbridge over a river, possibly in Colorado.


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enz_bridge.jpg log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois


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Millennium Bridge, London log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois


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ostruz.jpg www.prevodi-vertalingen.com/.../ ostruz.html log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois


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Truss Bridges log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois


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FIXED log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois

  • Truss

    • Beam bridge strengthed by trusses (structural spts joined to form triangles with tie rods)

    • Lighter than ordinary beam sections of equal length

    • Useful for longer bridges


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Timber Truss Bridge log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois


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Continuous Truss Bridges log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois


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View west of an iron log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinoistrussbridge crossing the Colorado River on the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad Montrose line at Grand Junction, Colorado; people and horses are on a sand bar.


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View of the bridge crossing the White River at Meeker, CO log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois

on the Mesa and Flag Creek road.


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White Water Creek Bridge, Spanning White Water Creek, log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois

Bernard vicinity, Dubuque County, IA


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Truss Bridge log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois

View of a trestle bridge that crosses Arastra Gulch near Silverton (San Juan County), Colorado.


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Jefferson Barracks Bridge log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, IllinoisLocation: Mississippi River, Jefferson Barracks, Missouri


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Simple Truss Bridges log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois


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FAI 24 Bridge Over the Ohio River log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, IllinoisPaducah, Kentucky

www.modjeski.com/projects/ servproj/paducah.htm


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gcdranet.homelinux.com/davehonan/ bridges/il.html log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois

Cairo


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Ohio River ferry and railroad bridge, Metropolis, IL log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois


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Arch Bridges log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois


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FIXED log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois

  • Arch

    • One or more arches

    • Masonry, reinforced concrete or steel

    • Roadway on toop of arches or suspended by cables

    • Spans can be longer than beam or truss


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Aquaduct log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois







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Segovia, Spain County, TN



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Pont du Gard County, TN



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Bayonne Bridge, Spanning Kill Van Kull between Bayonne & Staten Is, Bayonne, Hudson County, NJ


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Kill Staten Is, Bayonne, Hudson County, NJvanKull Bridge







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Arches can also be set above the deck as on the Sydney harbour bridge in Australia. This allows much more space beneath for ships to pass under.

www.bardaglea.org.uk/.../ bridge-types-arch.html


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Blue Water Bridges are a major international crossing over the St. Clair river at the southern end of Lake Huron

Blue Water Bridge


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Eads Bridge, St. Louis the St. Clair river at the southern end of Lake Huron


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Port Mann Bridge, Coquitlam-Surrey BC the St. Clair river at the southern end of Lake Huron This graceful steel arch, once the third-longest of its kind in the world, carries the Trans-Canada highway across the Fraser River. In 2002 its capacity was increased with the addition of an eastbound high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane, bringing the total to five

www.balsabridge.com/ bridge-van.htm


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Cantilever Bridges the St. Clair river at the southern end of Lake Huron


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FIXED the St. Clair river at the southern end of Lake Huron

  • Cantilever

  • Double-ended brackets supporting a center span

  • Shore end of each cantilever firmly anchored

  • Center supported by pier


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Quebec Bridge the St. Clair river at the southern end of Lake Huron


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Quebec Bridge the St. Clair river at the southern end of Lake Huron


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Quebec Bridge the St. Clair river at the southern end of Lake Huron


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Quebec Bridge the St. Clair river at the southern end of Lake Huron


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Quebec the St. Clair river at the southern end of Lake Huron

Bridge


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Quebec Bridge the St. Clair river at the southern end of Lake Huron


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Quebec Bridge the St. Clair river at the southern end of Lake Huron

On June 15, 1907 an inspecting engineer noted that two girders of the anchor was misaligned by a quarter of an inch.  Cooper called this a "not serious" problem.  In the inspection report in August, 1907, it was noted that the girders had moved out alignment a bit more and "appeared bent".  Although this condition was a bit more concerning, the work continued.


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Scotland's Firth of Forth the St. Clair river at the southern end of Lake Huron

A period museum photo shows cranes atop the massive structure. The bridge was constructed from 1882-1890, 2.5 KM (1.5 miles) across Scotland's Firth of Forth.  Note reflection of photographer from glass frame.

http://www.pre-engineering.com/resources/forth/forthbridge.htm


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http://www.brantacan.co.uk/cantilever.htm the St. Clair river at the southern end of Lake Huron




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Astoria bridge Columbia River.


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Suspension Bridges Columbia River.


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FIXED Columbia River.

  • Suspension

    • Roadway hangs from vertical cables supported by overhead cables strung between two or more towers

    • Longest spans

    • Costly

    • Difficult to design

    • Highly susceptible to winds and swaying

    • Cables can be up to three feet in diameter


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Tanana River suspension bridge. Columbia River.

http://tapseis.anl.gov/guide/photo/Tanana_Bridge.html




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Brooklyn Bridge Columbia River.



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Ambassador Bridge bridge that was built in 1927.


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Ambassador Bridge bridge that was built in 1927.


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Golden Gate Bridge bridge that was built in 1927.


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Golden Gate bridge that was built in 1927. Structures


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When it opened in 1964, the Verrazano Narrows Bridge was the world's longest suspension span. Today, its length is surpassed only by the Humber Bridge in England.


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Verrazano world's longest suspension span. Today, its length is surpassed only by the Humber Bridge in England.


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Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapsing, Tacoma, Washington, 1940 world's longest suspension span. Today, its length is surpassed only by the Humber Bridge in England.

On the morning of November 7, 1940, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge twisted violently in 42-mile-per-hour winds and collapsed into the cold waters of the Puget Sound. The disaster -- which luckily took no human lives -- shook the engineering community and forever changed the way bridges were built around the world. Roadway of Tacoma Narrows Bridge twisting violently in a windstorm, Tacoma, Washington, 1940


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Cable-Stayed Bridges world's longest suspension span. Today, its length is surpassed only by the Humber Bridge in England.


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FIXED world's longest suspension span. Today, its length is surpassed only by the Humber Bridge in England.

  • Cable-Stayed

  • Suspended by cables that run directly down to roadway from central towers

  • Less costly than suspension

  • Quickly constructable

  • Spans must be limited in length










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Swing Bridges Florida


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MOVEABLE Florida

  • Swing

  • Central span turned 90 degrees on pivot pier placed in middle of waterway

  • Double swing possible








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Bascule Bridges at th, Windsor, Berkshire County, MA


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MOVEABLE at th, Windsor, Berkshire County, MA

  • Bascule

    • One or two sections not supported by piers

    • Balanced on one end by counterweights

    • Section jackknifes up to allow passage of ships

    • Most common type of highway drawbridge


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View of an elevated train crossing the Van Buren Street Railroad Bridge which spanned the Chicago River from the Loop to the Near West Side community area in Chicago, Illinois.


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View of a Railroad Bridge which spanned the Chicago River from the Loop to the Near West Side community area in Chicago, Illinois. bascule bridge over the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois.


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Haarlem old lifting bridge. Railroad Bridge which spanned the Chicago River from the Loop to the Near West Side community area in Chicago, Illinois.

Lifting bridges are moveable bridges which enable boats to pass. They vary from simple wooden designs such as many seen in the Netherlands to large steel structures which carry heavy roads such as the bascule bridge in Docklands.




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Erie raised positionAvenueBridgeNewberry Bridge


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Vertical Lift Bridges raised position


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MOVEABLE raised position

  • Vertical Lift

    • Central span extends between two towers

    • Balanced by counterweights

    • Variation of this type is bridge over Shatt-al-arab River in Iraq—Roadway sinks into water to allow ships to pass over it



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Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge bridge

Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts



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Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Isl, Staten Island, Richmond County, NY


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Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Isl, Staten Island, Richmond County, NY


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GUIABA RIVER AT PORTO ALEGRE, BRAZIL Staten Isl, Staten Island, Richmond County, NY






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Bailey Bridges Portage Canal.


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OTHER Portage Canal.

  • Bailey

    • Small truss bridge made in sections

    • Assembled on shore

    • Pushed out from shore to cover span

    • Transportable to new sites


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Bailey Portage Canal.

Tank destroyer advances along

a mountain road, Italy


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Pontoon Bridges Portage Canal.


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OTHER Portage Canal.

  • Pontoon

    • Floats on water

    • Can be disassembled and moved to new site

    • Supported by pontoons or barges


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The U.S. Army's Sava River bridge is taken apart at nightfall and put together in the morning



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Pontoon bridges, North Anna, constructed by the 50th N.Y.V. Engineers, below railroad bridge, where a portion of the 2nd Corps, under Gen. Hancock crossed 23rd May, 1864


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Broadway Landing, Va. Pontoon bridge across the Appomattox Engineers, below railroad bridge, where a portion of the 2nd Corps, under Gen. Hancock crossed 23rd May, 1864


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Evergreen Floating Bridge Engineers, below railroad bridge, where a portion of the 2nd Corps, under Gen. Hancock crossed 23rd May, 1864


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Evergreen Bridge. Engineers, below railroad bridge, where a portion of the 2nd Corps, under Gen. Hancock crossed 23rd May, 1864The official name of the bridge is the Governor Albert D. Rosellini Bridge at Evergreen Point, after a popular former governor who was in office when the bridge opened.


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Combined Bridges Engineers, below railroad bridge, where a portion of the 2nd Corps, under Gen. Hancock crossed 23rd May, 1864


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[Stony Brook glen, Shawmut Bridge, Dansville, N.Y.]. Engineers, below railroad bridge, where a portion of the 2nd Corps, under Gen. Hancock crossed 23rd May, 1864


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Knie_bridge Engineers, below railroad bridge, where a portion of the 2nd Corps, under Gen. Hancock crossed 23rd May, 1864


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Lake_Pontchartrain_Causeway-vi.jpg Engineers, below railroad bridge, where a portion of the 2nd Corps, under Gen. Hancock crossed 23rd May, 1864


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Lake_Pontchartrain_Causeway-vi.jpg Engineers, below railroad bridge, where a portion of the 2nd Corps, under Gen. Hancock crossed 23rd May, 1864


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Old Alton Bridge Engineers, below railroad bridge, where a portion of the 2nd Corps, under Gen. Hancock crossed 23rd May, 1864


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Name that Bridge Engineers, below railroad bridge, where a portion of the 2nd Corps, under Gen. Hancock crossed 23rd May, 1864

Give the type for each.


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