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At What Cost Pervasive? A social computing view of mobile computing systems. By: D.C.Dryer, C. Eisbach, and W.S. Ark IBM Systems Journal, online Presentation by: Francine Gemperle gemperle@cmu.edu 412 268 7221. Pervasive Computing.

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At what cost pervasive a social computing view of mobile computing systems l.jpg

At What Cost Pervasive?A social computing view of mobile computing systems

By: D.C.Dryer, C. Eisbach, and W.S. Ark

IBM Systems Journal, online

Presentation by: Francine Gemperle

gemperle@cmu.edu 412 268 7221


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Pervasive Computing

  • An abundance of networked mobile and embedded computing devices used by both individuals and groups in various locations for various tasks.

  • Access the right information, right time, right way


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Social Interface theory

  • To demonstrate how humans respond socially to machines -> and propose to use these responses to create human computer interactions that are natural enjoyable and efficient.

  • (useful usable and desirable)


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Social Computing

  • Social Computing is the interplay between persons, social behaviors, and interactions with computing technologies.

  • Human sociality- groups I am in Vs. groups I’m not in- Us Vs. Them


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How is Social Interface Theory executed?

  • Anthropomorphic software agents (both dynamic and static)

  • Speech interfaces

  • Industrial design

  • Mediated social interactions

  • : ) ASCII expression of emotion


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Direct and Indirect social effects of pervasive computers

  • Computers designed to be used solo

  • “antisocial” stereotype of computer users

  • Allow fewer person to person interactions

  • Conflict : computer as status symbol Vs.Socially undesirable to be seen with a computer


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Personal mobile computers do not support BOTH productivity and social interactions.

  • Palm Pilot

  • Tamaguchi


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Two studies in this research

Focus on Human/Human interaction in the context of collaborative work with the computer used as a tool rather than a mediary.

1. Understanding the schema Or shared stereotypes of a culture of experienced computer users

2. Overwhelm or Overturn the prejudices of that schema


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Theoretical Model


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Specific social computing factors

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System Design Human Behavior Social Attribution Interaction Outcome

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Accessibility Appeal Agreeableness Device satisfaction

Familiarity Disruption Extroversion Productivity

Input sharing Perceiver distraction Identification Social attraction

Output sharing Power Relevance User distraction


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Study 1

5 questionnaires designed to assess schemata concerning social impact of technology

• general expectations about social life and technology

• system design perceptions

• expectations of human behavior

• social attributions to targets

• expectations of the interaction outcome


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Study 1 Targets


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Results

Evidence that individuals may access different schemata depending on the system design encountered.

Among system design variables and interaction outcome, no relationships are statistically significant. The system design

variables appear not to be directly related to social attraction.


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Results

1.The accessibility of a device, is related to the power that is expected between the participant and the target.

2.Output sharing and extroversion are related. Extroversion is associated with expectations of an enjoyable interaction.

3.Appeal is associated with social attraction. If a device will make the target look awkward, interaction will be less enjoyable

4.All the system design variables and most of the human behavior variables are associated with identification.

In general, the participants tended not to associate the system design elements directly with the interaction outcome elements.

Instead, the system design elements appear to be mentally interassociated with the human behavior and social attribution elements, and these latter elements are in turn associated with the expected interaction outcome.


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Study 2

How does technology and stereotypes affect actual social interactions?

Partners in problem solving activity -assessed before during and after for

1 perceived agreeableness and extroversion

2 disruption of output sharing

3 perceived power

4 device satisfaction

5 perceived productivity

6 social attraction


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Results

Evidence that system design factors can influence the outcome of social interactions - making the user seem more or less agreeable and the interaction more or less productive.


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Social Computing Checklist

for devices designed to be used in the presence of others

1. Accessibility. Do non users believe that they could use the device easily, Do they understand easily how it works?

2. Familiarity. Is the form of the device one that is familiar and appropriate for its context of use?

3. Input Sharing. Does the device allow nonusers to input information easily and naturally?

4. Output Sharing. Does the device allow nonusers to perceive easily and understand output?


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Social Computing Checklist continued

5. Relevance. Does the device appear to nonusers to be useful to the user and to the nonuser?

6. Appeal. Is the device something that the user is comfortable being seen using, and do non users find the device and use of the device, attractive?

7. Disruption. Does the device disrupt individuals natural social behaviors, such as referring to shared information while interacting?

8. Perceiver Distraction. Does using the device create noise or otherwise create a distraction for nonusers?


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Social Computing Checklist continued

9. Power. To what extent does use of the device put one person more “in charge” than another person, and to what extent does using the device communicate a difference in status?

10. User Distraction. Does the device place a high cognitive load on the user during use, or otherwise create a distraction?

11. Identification. Does the device appear to include or exclude the user from certain communities, and do nonusers see themselves as a person who would use the device?


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Social Computing Checklist continued

12. Pervasiveness. Is the device mobile or otherwise convenient to use in social settings?

13. Communication. Does the device make communication among persons easy, especially the sharing of important social information, such as appointments and contact information?

14. Social Application. Does the device support rich social interactions such as through interest matching, meeting facilitation or social networking?


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