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Freudian Psychoanalysis. Summary Fetishism as an Example. Outline. Sigmund Freud Jacque Lacan Fetishism Continuations ego psychology & object-relations theory Connections with Marxism Video References. Freudian Psychoanalysis: General Comment --Deconstruction.

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Freudian psychoanalysis

Freudian Psychoanalysis


Fetishism as an Example


  • Sigmund Freud

  • Jacque Lacan

  • Fetishism

  • Continuations

    • ego psychology & object-relations theory

    • Connections with Marxism

  • Video References

Freudian psychoanalysis general comment deconstruction
Freudian Psychoanalysis: General Comment --Deconstruction

  • Freud begins with a series of hierarchical oppositions:

    • normal/pathological,

    • Sanity/insanity,

    • Experience/dream,

    • Conscious/unconscious,

    • Life/death.

      The first –prior and richer;The second–negation or complication;

  • Freud: the first –”a special case of the fundamentals designated by the second term.”(Jonathan Culler qud in Wright 124)

Freudian psychoanalysis major concepts terms
Freudian Psychoanalysis: Major Concepts & Terms

  • [Beginning Theory]

  • The Unconscious (taking a large part of our mind),

  • Repression & Sublimation (the other defense mechanisms– screen memory, projection, transference, Freudian slip; see here )

  • e.g. Psychology of Everyday Life; Forgetting, slips of the tongue, bungled actions, superstitions and errors'

  • Freud s interpretations of dreams
    Freud’s Interpretations of Dreams

    • Dream work (see here; 4:11~6:30) –condensation and displacement  sexual symbols (Note: Freud: 'Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar‘)

      • E.g. a woman dreaming of a bete noire  Schwartz.

      • e.g. significant omission of the word 'aliquis' (which means 'somebody') in a young man’s statement

    • e.g. Dora’s dreams (of a fire, in which her father said: “father said 'I refuse to let myself and my two children be burnt for the sake of your jewel-case'.

    Freudian psychoanalysis major concepts terms1
    Freudian Psychoanalysis: Major Concepts & Terms

    • [Beginning Theory]

  • Sexuality Development, libido, and Oedipus Complex

  • e.g. Hamlet – “Hamlet cannot avenge this crime because he is guilty of wanting to commit the same crime himself. He has an Oedipus complex, that is, a repressed sexual desire for his own mother, and a consequent wish to do away with his father”

  • e.g. Sons and Lovers

  • e.g. Homecoming, American Beauty [challenging the Father]

  • Freudian psychoanalysis possible functions criticism
    Freudian Psychoanalysis: possible functions & criticism

    A. Psyche, Id psychology & Child development: The theory of Oedipus complex and penis envy

    -- helps explain gendering processes in patriarchal society.

    -- Freud's limitations or our misunderstanding?

    -- inability to explain female sexuality--"What do women want?"

    -- its focus on infantile psychology. "Between ordinary adult personality traits and infantile psychology thereare layers upon layers of relationships, experiences, values and meanings."

    Freudian psychoanalysis possible functions criticism1
    Freudian Psychoanalysis: possible functions & criticism

    B. Psychobiography and Art as Dream work.

    -- psychobiography (treating artists as patients, art as dream work, and explaining art in terms of his/her life) can be reductive, ignoring art’s aesthetic aspects on the conscious level. (e.g. E. Bishop’s objectification/distantiation of her loss )

    -- We can examine our own transference in reading.

    -- interpretation of dream: helps us understand the languages of dream.

    Freudian psychoanalysis possible functions criticism2
    Freudian Psychoanalysis: possible functions & criticism

    C. Psychological Pattern & Disorders

    1) Patterns in Psychic Processes :

    repression  displacement/sublimation or fixation/regression

    2) Disorder -- the return of the repressed through symptoms.

    repetition compulsion, defense mechanism, death/life instincts

    -- Helpful for character and self analysis;

    -- entering the symbolic order means having reality checks; otherwise, we may become psychotic.

    Freudian psychoanalysis lacan
    Freudian Psychoanalysis: Lacan

    The Imaginary

    • Add linguistic elements to Freud’s analysis. (Evidence: dream work)

    • Ego – a mirror image, an illusion.

    • Barred subject: S-ier/S-ied; or S; 'I am where I think not'

    • [Beginning Theory] There is a perpetual barrier between signifier (the word) and signified (the referent). … Hence, “we are forced to accept the notion of an incessant sliding of the signified under the signifer” (Lodge, p. 87).

    • Sliding beneath—the signified, is our desire.

    Freudian psychoanalysis lacan1
    Freudian Psychoanalysis: Lacan

    • The three orders of human existence: constant antagonism between the Real and the Symbolic, our mirror images and the need to “look.” -- The Symbolic, The Imaginary, and the Real (black hole, return as absences  the semiotic for Kristeva)

    • Entering the Symbolic Order, we follow the Name of the Father (its power and logic)

    • Desire as lack --

      • The differences between need, demand (with language) and desire.

      • The mother as feminine Other, our needs for the “others” (objet a).

    --Is this another fiction?



    An example of controversies and continuation

    Fetishism of different kinds
    Fetishism – of Different Kinds

    • (Religious fetishism: body, object, god and charm 拜物教--人體、物體、神像和護身符四大類);

    • Erotic/Sexual fetishism;

    • Commodity fetishism and Colonial fetishism

    Fetishism general def
    FETISHISM—general def.

    • Erotic fetishism-- the dependence on particular objects (part of a body or an inanimate object) to obtain sexual arousal.

    • Most common fetish objects are Female underwear, Leatherwear, and Rubber. Using female underwear for fetishistic purposes is one reason for partial cross-dressing.

    Erotic fetishism examples
    Erotic fetishism- Examples

    • Clothing Fetishism- underwear- uniforms (e.g. Exotica)- gloves - shoes/boots/pantyhose

    • (Body) Modification- tattoos- piercing

    • Material Fetishism- leather- fur- velvet (e.g. Blue Velvet)

    Erotic fetishism examples1
    Erotic fetishism- Examples

    • Body Fetishism- legs/feet - hair- nails/claws - belly buttons

    • Other Fetishism- manaquins/robots- cross dressing

      - cigarette

    Erotic fetishism freud s analysis
    Erotic fetishism- Freud’s analysis

    • Disavowal: The little boy sees the mother’s genitals and simultaneously denies his perception of her castration.

      //his castration fear

      Solution -- denial/acceptance of her castration, and by extension his own, by finding a substitute.

    • Fetish:

      • A substitute for the mother’s missing penis;

      • Linked metonymically to the female genitalia;

      • Never the same as the original, which is a fiction. (imaginary phallus or phallic mother)

    Erotic fetishism reasons
    Erotic fetishism- Reasons

    • Fetishization:

      • eroticizes an object or a non-genital part of one’s body;

      • allows the boy to remain intimate with the “phallic mother” while at the same time enter the symbolic, accepting the father’s law and developing his masculinity.

    • Lacan’s example: Little Harry (Grosz 119-20)

    • Is fetishism all about need for power and identification?

    • Are we all fetishists, one way or another

    Fetishism example

    Fetishism: example

    • Fazio's Mistress, 1863.D.G.Rossetti 

    Erotic fetishism extention
    Erotic fetishism- Extention

    • Visual Pleasures in Hollywood films

    • –the camera takes a male perspective, watching female stars as passive object of look

    • Satisfy two kinds of desire:

    • Male voyeurism –peeping in order to possess

    • Fetishism --look and identify with the glamorized female stars;

      -- fetishizing women’s body on the screen; in order to project them as “phallic mother”(//e.g. film noire: the woman has to be a lack, losing memory of her identity.)

    Erotic fetishism criticism
    Erotic fetishism- Criticism

    • Reflects Freud’s emphasis of--

      • Female castration, male castration anxiety

      • Freud’s privileging the phallus

    • Feminist responses

      1. Rejection –fetishism coincides with the norm of phallocentrism.

      2. Female fetishism: e.g. collection of memorabilia; self-fetishization;

      3. Rewriting: female disavowal—women disavow their own castration through narcissism or hysteria. It also explains female development of lesbianism.

    Examples for analysis mulholland dr its narcissistic elements
    Examples for analysis: Mulholland Dr. –its “Narcissistic” Elements

    • As a revision of film noire, it has a woman, but not a man, in pursuit of a femme fatale (who is mysterious and amnesiac).

    • The fetishistic images in the film turn to be those of herself.

    • Mirror/reality forms a vicious circle, and there is no outlet for her.

    Greta garbo vs diane
    Greta Garbo vs. Diane

    Rene magritte the dangerous liaison http bertc com magritte menu htm
    Rene Magritte, The Dangerous Liaison

    • The woman hides behind a projected “phallic” image of herself.  contradiction between soliciting gaze with the gesture of modesty and self-projection.

    • (Cf. Wright 185)

    Fetishism literary examples
    Fetishism: Literary Examples

    • Hemingway

    • his male heroes – all amputees. (Jake Barnes is missing his penis. Harry Morgan is missing his arm. Harry Walden has a gangrenous leg. Colonel Cantwell has been shot "twice through the hand.“)

      • a fear of castration  envy of masculine grace.

      • an unsettling identification with the "castrated" woman, which paradoxically intensifies castration anxiety. e.g.

    Fetishism literary examples1
    Fetishism: Literary Examples

    “問金庸情是何物:禮物、信物、證物”– by 張小虹;

    -- Some fetishes may not be sexual in nature


    -- green light in The Great Gatsby (national fetish)

    -- commodity fetish (e.g. The commodities in such realist novels as Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath or Sister Carrie)

    Fetishism of other kinds colonial fetish
    Fetishism of Other Kinds: Colonial Fetish

    • sexual fetish the sexualized "fetish of colonial discourse" (Homi Bhabha)

    • colonial fetish:

      • in the ambivalent space "in between“

        • an imposed identity and the reality of their humanity for the colonized

        • between the recognized and the disavowed,

        • between fear and desire for the colonizers.

    • The tropes of the sexual fetish are present in the colonial fetish, but syncretized with certain tropes of colonialist experience and identity to embody the larger socio-political context of colonial relations.

    Fetishism of other kinds colonial fetish1
    Fetishism of Other Kinds: Colonial Fetish

    • e.g.1. the image of the submissive and sweet Oriental woman (Madame Butterfly);

    • 2. Jimmie Durham Self-Portrait (1986) Sexually powerful aborigine. -- sea shells for ears, bits of animal hide hair; one turquoise eye is just to show a little "Indianness," and the feathers revealed by an open chest cavity imply a certain "light-heartedness." and defiantly "large and colorful" genitals.

    Fetishism of other kinds commodity fetish
    Fetishism of Other Kinds: Commodity Fetish

    • The charming and enigmatic nature of commodity

       Exchange values added to it;

    • relations between the products // relations between men

      e.g. Cell phone, Hello Kitty, etc.

    • More next time.




    Ego psychology object relations theory
    ego psychology & object-relations theory

    • Ego psychology – deal with the management of fantasies for the maintenance of identity;

    • (id psychology– instinctual drives and private fantasies)

    • Object-relations:

      • feelings about the mother projected to an external object;  multiple interactions with the object  establish one’s relations with reality.

    Combined with marxism
    Combined with Marxism

    • The symbolic order – filled with signs of ideologies;

    • Commodity –as a sublime object of our desire (to hide the inner split in us).

    • Analyzing cultural symptoms. e.g. the need for stigmatization when SARRS occurs.

    • Treating Psychoanalysis as a discourse that gets form when traditional families are challenged. (e.g. Foucault)

    Online references
    Online References

    • Defense Mechanisms


    • Psychoanalytic Criticism: A Reappraisal by Elizabeth Wright. Polity,1998.\

    • Elizabeth Grosz Jacque Lacan: A Feminist Introduction

    Video references
    Video References


    • Freud (Biography) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

    • Jacques Lacan By Marcus Pond

    • Texts:

      • all of Hitchcock’s films

      • A Dangerous Method (2011) [about Freud, Jung and Sabina Spielrein]

      • Muholland Dr.; The Piano, The Piano Teacher, American Beauty, etc.

      • Mindscape (link)