ZIGBEE-An 1EEE 802.15.4 STANDARD
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ZIGBEE-An 1EEE 802.15.4 STANDARD. MADHURI VELUGOTLA Masters in ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING [email protected] 1. OUTLINE. INTRODUCTION MOTIVATION AND ORIGIN PREDECESSORS AND CONTENDERS ZIGBEE FEATURES IEEE 802.15.4 STANDARD IN ZIGBEE ZIGBEE WIRELESS NETWORKING IMPLEMENTATION

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Zigbee an 1eee 802 15 4 standard

ZIGBEE-An 1EEE 802.15.4 STANDARD

MADHURI VELUGOTLA

Masters in ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

[email protected]

1


Outline

OUTLINE

  • INTRODUCTION

  • MOTIVATION AND ORIGIN

  • PREDECESSORS AND CONTENDERS

  • ZIGBEE FEATURES

  • IEEE 802.15.4 STANDARD IN ZIGBEE

  • ZIGBEE WIRELESS NETWORKING IMPLEMENTATION

  • COMPARISON OF ZIGBEE WITH EXISTING STANDARDS

  • ZIGBEE COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS

2


Introduction

INTRODUCTION

  • ZigBee is an open global standard providing wireless networking based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and taking full advantage of a powerful physical radio this standard specifies. ZigBee is the result of collaborative efforts by a global consortium of companies known as the ZigBee Alliance.

  • The ZigBee 1.0 specification-December 14, 2004,called Zigbee 2004 (obsolete).

  • ZigBee 2007 specification-October 30, 2007, called Zigbee 2007 (currently in use).

    • 2 stack profiles-Zigbee, Zigbee pro.

    • Zigbee- smaller footprint in RAM and flash-home and light commercial use.

    • Zigbee pro- higher end features with higher security (with SKKE)

  • First ZigBee Application Profile, Home Automation, was announced November 2, 2007.

  • 3


    Motivation

    MOTIVATION

    Requirement of

    Low cost

    Less power consumption

    Wireless network

    Transmit smaller packets over large networks; mostly static networks with many, infrequently used devices.

    Ability to handle a large number of devices.

    ORIGIN:

    ZigBee is the set of specs built around the IEEE 802.15.4 wireless protocol.

    The name "ZigBee" is derived from the erratic zigzag patterns many bees make between flowers when collecting pollen. This is evocative of the invisible webs of connections existing in a fully wireless environment.

    The standard itself is regulated by a group known as the ZigBee Alliance, with over 150 members worldwide.

    4


    Predecessors and contenders

    PREDECESSORS and CONTENDERS:

    • Wired Sensors:

    • X-10:

    • Introduced in 1978.

    • Uses power line wiring to send and receive commands.

    • Power line carrier transmission.

    • Data rate-60bps(too slow), high redundancy, unreliable, poor security.

    • Wi-Fi:

    • Higher bandwidth support

    • Power thirsty features

    • Bluetooth:

    • Effort to cover more applications and QoS-deviated from design goal of simplicity.

    • Expensive, higher power consumption -inappropriate for simple applications.

    • 2.4GHz ISM band, range-(10-100)m at 720 Kbps-needs power boost.

    • 8 devices-scalability problems.

    • Infrared:

    • Most common since a decade for automating home appliances.

    • Typical household uses ~ (5-10) remote commanders.

    • Not Interchangeable, cannot support more than one device.

    • Z-wave:

    • Wireless RF-based communications technology-proposed in early 2005 by Zensys Inc.

    • Does not interfere as Zigbee does with Wi-Fi..

    5


    Zigbee features

    ZIGBEE FEATURES

    • RELIABILITY:

    • Channel access mechanism is CSMA-CA

    • Industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands

    • 27 channels- 3 separate frequency bands

    • No license required for any of the channels.

    • BATTERY LIFE:

    • Very low duty cycle.

    • Few months to many years-transmitter output power is -3dBm (0.5mW)

    • Power saving modes

    • Battery optimized network parameters

      • Selection of beacon intervals

      • Guaranteed time slots

      • Enablement/Disablement options

    6


    Zigbee features contd

    ZIGBEE FEATURES (Contd.)

    • COST:

    • Flexibility

    • Assortment of tradeoffs to optimize cost with respect to system performance

    • Ex: Battery life at the expense of service interval

    • Node cost and complexity at the cost of network complexity

    • System simplicity and flexibility make Zigbee more cost affective.

    • Zigbee-compliant transceiver-$1 and radio, processor, and memory package is about $3

    • TRANSMISSION RANGE:

    • Short range wireless standard.

    • At -3dBm transmitter output power- Single hop ranges from (10-100)m.

    • Factors-Environment, antenna and operating frequency.

    • Multi-hop and flexible routing-greater transmission ranges than single hop.

    • DATA RATE AND LATENCY:

    • Greater battery life needs higher data rate.

    • Higher data rate allows system to shut down more quickly- saves significant power.

    • Higher data rate implies less energy per transmitted bit which implies reduced range.

    • Latency for simple star networks is ~16ms.

    • Tradeoff-Data latency affects battery life, increases interference.

    7


    Zigbee features contd1

    ZIGBEE FEATURES (Contd.)

    • SIZE OF A ZIGBEE NETWORK:

    • 264 devices

    • 64 bit IEEE address

    • 65,000 nodes could be configured with reduced address overhead.

    • DATA SECURITY:

    • Security suite lets you choose the security necessary for application.

    • Security is provided through

      • Access control lists.

      • 32-bit to 128-bit AES encryption.

  • Benefits

    • Accesscontrol

    • Data encryption

    • Frame integrity

    • Sequential Freshness.

  • Tradeoffs- data volume, battery life, system processing power requirements.

  • Zigbee security toolbox

  • 8


    Ieee 802 15 4 contd

    IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.)

    From: Tim Cutler, “Implementing ZigBee wireless mesh networking”, Industrial Automation

    9


    Ieee 802 15 4

    IEEE 802.15.4

    • LR-WPAN:KEY FEATURES IEEE 802.15.4 Architecture

    • Over the air data rates in 27 channels of 3 bands.

    • Star/Peer to peer operation

    • 16 bit short/ 64 bits extended addressing.

    • Guaranteed time slots.

    • CSMA-CA

    • Low power consumption

    • Energy Detection and Link Quality Indication

    • Architecture:

    • Defines only PHY and MAC layers.

    From: ZigBee Tutorial, http://www.ifn.et.tu-dresden.de/~marandin/ZigBee/ZigBeeTutorial.html

    10


    Ieee 802 15 4 contd1

    IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.)

    • SERVICE PRIMITIVES (SP):

    • Conveys the required information by providing a particular service.

    • Each Service Primitive has 0 or more parameters.

    • GENERIC TYPES:

    • Request

    • Indication

    • Response

    • Confirm

    • IEEE 802.15.4 defines

      14 PHY primitives

    • 35 MAC primitives

    11


    Ieee 802 15 4 contd2

    IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.)

    • PHYSICAL LAYER Functions and SP:

    • Activation and Deactivation of the radio transceiver

      • PLME-SET-TRX-STATE. request

      • PLME-SET-TRX-STATE. confirm

  • Energy Detection

    • PLME-ED. request

    • PLME-ED. confirm

  • Link Quality Indication Measurement

    • PLME-GET. Request

    • PLME-GET. confirm

    • PLME-SET. Request

    • PLME-SET. confirm

  • Clear Channel Assessment

    • PLME-CCA. request

    • PLME-CCA. confirm

  • Data Transmission and Reception

    • PD-DATA. request

    • PD-DATA. confirm

    • PD-DATA. indication

  • 12


    Ieee 802 15 4 contd3

    IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.)

    • MAC Layer Functions (set of 35 SP):

    • Beacon Transmissions (for a coordinator)

      • MCPS-DATA.request

      • MCPS-DATA.confirm

      • MCPS-DATA.indication

  • Synchronization to the Beacons

  • PAN Association/ Disassociation

    • MLME-ASSOCIATE.request, MLME-DISASSOCIATE.request

    • MLME-ASSOCIATE.indication, MLME-DISASSOCIATE.indication

    • MLME-ASSOCIATE.response, MLME-DISASSOCIATE.response

    • MLME-ASSOCIATE.confirm, MLME-DISASSOCIATE.confirm

  • CSMA-CA for channel access:

  • GTS Transmissions

  • Reliable Link between two peer MAC entities

    • MLME-GET.request MLME-SCAN.request

    • MLME-GET.confirm MLME-SCAN.confirm

    • MLME-SET.request

    • MLME-SET.confirm

    • MLME-ORPHAN.indication

    • MLME-ORPHAN.response

    • MLME-RX-ENABLE.request

    • MLME-RX-ENABLE.confirm

  • 13


    Mac overview general frame structure

    MAC Overview :General Frame Structure

    • 4 Types of MAC Frames:

      • Data Frame : Used for all transfers of data

      • Beacon Frame : Used by the coordinator to transmit beacons

      • Acknowledgment Frame: Used for confirming successful frame reception

      • MAC Command Frame: Used for handling all MAC peer entity control transfers.

    From IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs), Jose Gutierrez, 2003

    14


    Ieee 802 15 4 contd4

    IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.)

    • Traffic types

    • Periodic data:

      • Defined by wireless sensor/meter

      • Sensor checks for a beacon, exchanges data, goes to sleep.

  • Intermittent data:

    • Application /external stimulus defined.

    • Handle in a beaconless system/disconnected operation.

  • Repetitive low latency data:

    • Uses time slot allocation such as security system.

    • May use Guaranteed Time Slot capability.

  • Divided into 16 equally sized slots.

  • May turn off the beacon transmissions if the coordinator does not wish to use the frame structure.

  • Any device wishing to communicate during the contention access period (CAP) between two beacons shall compete with other devices using a slotted CSMA-CA mechanism.

  • The PAN coordinator may dedicate portions of the active super frame to that application (low latency / require specific bandwidth). These portions are called guaranteed time slots (GTSs).

  • From: ZigBee IEEE 802.15.4, Yuan Yuxiang

    15


    Ieee 802 15 4 contd5

    IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.)

    Coordinator and Data Transfer:

    Beacon Network

    Non-Beacon Network

    Data Transfer to a coordinator

    Data Transfer from a coordinator

    From: ZigBee IEEE 802.15.4, Yuan Yuxiang

    16


    Super frame

    SUPER FRAME

    • The format of the super frame is defined by the

    • coordinator.

    • The super frame is bounded by network beacons, is sent by the coordinator and is divided into 16

    • equally sized slots.

    • If a coordinator does not wish to use a super frame structure it may turn off the beacon transmissions.

    • Any device wishing to communicate during the contention access period (CAP) between two

    • beacons shall compete with other devices using a slotted CSMA-CA mechanism.

    From: ZigBee Tutorial, http://www.ifn.et.tu-dresden.de/~marandin/ZigBee/ZigBeeTutorial.html

    17


    Zigbee wireless networking implementation

    ZIGBEE WIRELESS NETWORKING IMPLEMENTATION

    • Zigbee Network Topologies:

    • Star:

      • Common

      • Very long battery life operation

  • Mesh

    • High reliability, scalability

  • Cluster tree

    • Hybrid.

  • COORDINATOR:

  • Initializes a network

  • Organizes network nodes and maintains routing tables.

  • Full function device (FFD)

    • Any topology

    • PAN coordinator capable

    • Talks to any other device

    • Implements complete protocol set

  • Reduced function device (RFD)

    • Limited to star topology or end-device in a peer-to-peer network.

    • Cannot become a PAN coordinator

    • Very simple implementation

    • Reduced protocol set

  • From: Implementing zigbee wireless mesh networking, Tim Cutler, July 2005

    18


    Zigbee wireless networking implementation contd

    ZIGBEE WIRELESS NETWORKING IMPLEMENTATION (Contd.)

    • Zigbee networks are primarily for

      low duty cycle sensor networks (<1%).

    • New network nodes are recognized in 30 ms.

    • Waking a sleeping node/ accessing a

      channel/ transmitting data takes 15ms.

    • Ability to quickly attach information, detach,

      go to deep sleep results in low power consumption

      and hence extended battery life.

    From: NetworkConnections-www.jennic.comproductsabout_zigbee.php

    19


    Zigbee wireless networking implementation contd1

    ZIGBEE WIRELESS NETWORKING IMPLEMENTATION (Contd.)

    • Algorithms:

    • Scalable Broadcast Algorithm [SBA]

    • Ad Hoc Broadcast Protocol [AHBP]

    • On-Tree Self-Pruning Rebroadcast [OSR]

    • Zigbee On-Tree Selection Algorithm [ZOS]

    • Zigbee Broadcast Algorithm

    • Global Algorithm

    • Algorithm in Use for Zigbee:

    • Zigbee Broadcast Algorithm

    • Only tree neighbors rebroadcast

    • Flooding based (Every node rebroadcasts)

    20


    Zigbee wireless networking implementation contd2

    ZIGBEE WIRELESS NETWORKING IMPLEMENTATION (Contd.)

    • Recommended/Proposed Algorithm:

    • Zigbee On-Tree Selection Algorithm [ZOS]

    • Every forward node selects its own forward nodes and rebroadcasts once.

    • Every non-forward node drops the packet and never rebroadcasts

    • (even if it is selected as forward node later).

    • Broadcast process stops when all nodes are marked (as either forward node or

    • non-forward node).

    • Whole network is guaranteed to be covered.

    21


    Comparison of zigbee with existing standards contd

    COMPARISON OF ZIGBEE WITH EXISTING STANDARDS (Contd.)

    From: A comparative study of wireless protocols: Bluetooth, UWB, ZigBee and Wi-Fi, Jin-Shyan Lee, Yu-Wei Su, Chung-Chou Shen, IEEE 2007

    22


    Zigbee commercial applications

    ZIGBEE-COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS

    • Application Categories/Scenarios:

    • Monitoring

      • Safety

      • Surveillance systems

      • Fire alarmsetc.

  • Automation and Control

  • Situation awareness and precision asset location

  • Entertainment

  • Computer peripherals

  • Application areas:

  • Home/industrial automation

  • Utility meter Reading and control

  • 23


    Zigbee commercial applications contd

    ZIGBEE-COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Contd.)

    • Home Automation and control:

    • Comfort and convenience

      • Lighting control

      • Audio/video control

  • Home heartbeat System

    • Monitor’s the presence of the Owner via occupancy sensor.

    • Water leaks via water presence sensor

    • Open/ Close sensor for door, windows etc.

    • Alerts could be set via keychain/mobile Interface.

  • Building automation and control:

    • HVAC control

    • Lighting Control

    • Security Systems

  • WiSuite Automation System

    • Interfaces in hotel reservation systems for occupancy information.

    • Auto-setting of the temperature based on occupancy.

  • Utility Meter Communication:

    • Allocate utility costs equitably based on actual consumption.

  • Example:

    • Refrigerator shopping for items!

  • 24


    References

    References:

    • [1] Zigbee Alliance. [Online]. Available at www.xbow.com

    • [2] Building a Remote Supervisory Control Network System for Smart Home Applications, Yu-Ping Tsou, Jun-Wei Hsieh, Cheng-Ting Lin, Chun-Yu Chen, 2006 IEEE. [Online]. Available at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/4273787/4274116/04274130.pdf?tp=&isnumber=&arnumber=4274130

    • [3] Gang Ding, Zafer Sahinoglu, Philip Orlik, Jinyun Zhang and Bharat Bhargava, “Tree-Based Data Broadcast inIEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee Networks” IEEE transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 11, November 2006.

    • http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7755/35972/01704820.pdf

    • [4] Andrew Wheeler, “Commercial Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks Using ZigBee”, TOPICS IN AD HOC AND SENSOR NETWORKS, Ember Corporation

    • http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/35/4149645/04149662.pdf?tp=&arnumber=4149662 &isnumber=4149645

    • [5] David Geer, “Users Make a Beeline for ZigBee Sensor Technology”, University Trends. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/2/33102/01556477.pdf

    • [6] Tim Cutler, “Implementing ZigBee wireless mesh networking”, Industrial Automation.

    • http://rfdesign.com/mag/507RFDF1.pdf

    • [7] Cheolhee park and Theodore S. Rappaport, “Short-range Wireless Communications for Next-Generation Networks: UWB, 60 GHz millimeter-wave WPAN, and Zigbee” IEEE Wireless Communications, August 2007 77, 04300986

    • http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7742/4300972/04300986.pdf?tp=&arnumber=4300986&isnumber=4300972

    • [8] Sinem Coleri Ergen, “ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 Summary”, September 10, 2004

    • http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~suman/courses/838/papers/zigbee.pdf

    • [9] T. Ryan Burchfield, S. Venkatesan, Douglas Weiner, “Maximizing Throughput in ZigBee Wireless Networks through Analysis, Simulations and Implementations”, Supported by a contract from Wireless Monitoring Solutions, Signal Technology, a Crane Co. http://www.utdallas.edu/~rxb023100/pubs/ZigBee_Throughput.pdf

    • [10] Mikhail Galeev, “Home Networking with Zigbee”, Embedded.com, http://www.embedded.com/columns/technicalinsights/18902431?_ requestid=1064642

    • [11] “ZigBee”, Wikipedia.org, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zigbee

    • [12] “What is ZigBee?”, wisegeek.com, http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-zigbee.htm

    25


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