The color colour of snow and its interpretation from imaging spectrometry
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The Color Colour of Snow and its Interpretation from Imaging Spectrometry. Spectral reflectance of clean snow. Snow is a collection of scattering grains. Snow spectral reflectance and absorption coefficient of ice. Snow/cloud discrimination with Landsat. Bands 3 2 1 (red, green, blue).

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The Color Colour of Snow and its Interpretation from Imaging Spectrometry

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The color colour of snow and its interpretation from imaging spectrometry

The ColorColour of Snow and its Interpretation from Imaging Spectrometry


Spectral reflectance of clean snow

Spectral reflectance of clean snow


Snow is a collection of scattering grains

Snow is a collection of scattering grains


Snow spectral reflectance and absorption coefficient of ice

Snow spectral reflectance and absorption coefficient of ice


Snow cloud discrimination with landsat

Snow/cloud discrimination with Landsat

Bands 3 2 1 (red, green, blue)

Bands 5 4 2


Spectral solar irradiance

Spectral solar irradiance


Net solar radiation

Net solar radiation


Analyses of snow properties from imaging spectrometry

Analyses of snow properties from imaging spectrometry

  • Spectral albedo and conversion to broadband albedo

    • [Nolin & Dozier, Remote Sens. Environ., 2000]

  • Fractional (subpixel) snow-covered area, along with albedo

    • [Painter et al., Remote Sens. Environ., 2003]

  • Liquid water in surface layer

    • [Green et al., Water Resour. Res., 2006]

  • Absorbing impurities

    • [Painter et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2001; Geophys. Res. Lett., 2007]


Conventional approach to estimating albedo

Conventional approach to estimating albedo

Satellite radiance (~5% error)

Surface reflectance (>5%)

Narrowband albedo (5-10%)

Broadband albedo (5-10%)


Estimate grain size from the1 03 m m absorption feature

Estimate grain size from the1.03mm absorption feature


Measured vs remotely sensed grain size

Measured vs remotely sensed grain size

ETH/CU Camp12 June 2001q=46.6°

500

550

600


Spectral mixture analysis

Spectral mixture analysis


Snow covered area in the tokopah basin kaweah river drainage sierra nevada

Snow-covered area in the Tokopah Basin (Kaweah River drainage), Sierra Nevada

AVIRIS

21 May 1997

05 May 1997

18 June 1997

20 km


Grain size in the tokopah basin kaweah river drainage sierra nevada

Grain size in the Tokopah Basin (Kaweah River drainage), Sierra Nevada

21 May 1997

05 May 1997

18 June 1997

20 km


Absorption by three phases of water

Absorption by three phases of water


Wet snow

Wet snow

(Green et al, WRR, forthcoming)


Surface wetness with aviris mt rainier 14 june 1996

Surface wetness with AVIRIS, Mt. Rainier,14 June 1996

AVIRIS image, 409, 1324, 2269 nm

precipitable water, 1-8 mm

liquid water, 0-5 mm path absorption

vapor, liquid, ice (BGR)


Progression of snow wetness throughout morning

Progression of snow wetness throughout morning

Surfacewetness09:54 am

N

AVIRIS20 May 1996

Surfacewetness11:32 am

70 km


Dust and algae

Dust and algae


Spectral reflectance of dirty snow and snow with red algae chlamydomonas nivalis

Spectral reflectance of dirty snow and snow with red algae (Chlamydomonasnivalis)


Radiative forcing concept

Radiative forcing concept


Radiative forcing by dust in snow

Radiative forcing by dust in snow


Applications snowmelt modeling marble fork of the kaweah river

Applications: snowmelt modeling,Marble Fork of the Kaweah River

Snow Covered Area

net radiation> 0

degree days > 0

where:

mq= Energy to water depth conversion, 0.026 cm W-1 m2 day-1

ar= Convection parameter, based on wind speed, temperature, humidity, and roughness


Magnitude of snowmelt modeled observed snow water equivalent

Magnitude of snowmelt: Modeled – Observed snow water equivalent

AVIRISalbedo

SWE difference, cm

Tokopah basin, Sierra Nevada

assumed w/ update

assumedalbedo


Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments

  • Steve Warren & Warren Wiscombe

    • Model for the spectral albedo of snow (1980)

  • NASA

    • Funding on remote sensing of snow since 1977

  • UC Santa Barbara

    • Great place to think about snow and ice

  • Former and current students on this topic

    • Bert Davis, Rob Green, Danny Marks, Anne Nolin, Tom Painter, Karl Rittger, Walter Rosenthal, Jiancheng Shi


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