Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications
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Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications P.K.Dubey, Dr. Hitesh Soni*, Dr. M.Soni, Ms. Thipa Thai Organics Chemicals Co., Ltd. (Epoxy Division) Map Ta Phut-Rayong (Thailand). Introduction:

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Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

P.K.Dubey, Dr. Hitesh Soni*, Dr. M.Soni, Ms. Thipa

Thai Organics Chemicals Co., Ltd. (Epoxy Division)Map Ta Phut-Rayong (Thailand)

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Introduction:

PWB, flip chip encapsulation, surface mounting adhesives, conformal and die coatings are major applications requiring FR epoxy resin

Demand of halogen free fire retardant material due to environmental issues

Lead free soldering calling for high heat resistance

Miniaturization of electronic components requiring high thermal stability

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Conventional FR epoxy resins

Bromine containing

Standard for many years and have environmental and thermal stability issue

Filler containing

Capable to achieve V-0 rating

Problem of high viscosity, aggregation of filler and micro structural defects in cured resin

Red phosphorous

Suitable to achieve V-0 rating but have issue of pigmentation & handling

Phosphorous additives

Effective fire-retardants.

Problem of high water affinity, risk of p-o-p or c-o-p bonds under humid

condition along with low thermal stability

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

R-H + •X R• + HX

HX + •OH H2O + •X

Px H3POX

-H2O

H3POX + CH2–CH2 –H3PO4 + C

Mechanism of various flame retardant action

1. Halogen based flame retardant

2. Filler based flame retandant

Al(OH)3xH20 Al2O3 + H2O

3. Phosphorus based flame retardant

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Present work

Reactive phosphorous compound (DOPO) selected for study as fire-retardant

Multifunctional EOCN and EBPN resins synthesized and suitably reacted with DOPO

Phenolic compounds based on phenol Novolac, bis-phenol Novolac, O-cresol Novolac, and tris-phenols are selected as hardener.

2MI and TPP are used as catalyst

All sets of combinations studied for thermal, mechanical, and electrical

properties.

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Epoxy Resin: YDBN 602 and YDBN 602P

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Epoxy resin TOCN 4030 and TOCN 4030P

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Phenolic Hardeners:

Phenol Novolac-PN

O-Cresol Novolac- OCN

BPA Novolac- BPN

Tris- Phenol- TP

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Catalyst

2- Methyl Imidazole- 2MI

Triphenyl Phosphine- TPP

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Reaction Mechanism of 2-MI with epoxy group

Source: Farkas, A., Strohem, P.F., J.Appl. Polym. Sci., 1968, 12, p159

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

mechanism of reaction between epoxy and phenol using TPP as catalyst

Romanchick, W.A., Sohn, J.E., and Geibel, J.F., ACS Symposium Series 221-Epoxy Resin Chemistry II ( Ed: R.S.Bauer) American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. 1982, p-85

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Basic Properties of Epoxy resins

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Typical properties Epoxy resins

  • Physical properties are comparable

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Typical properties Epoxy resins

  • Melt viscosity is low in case of YDBN resins in-spite of high Mw/Mn ratio.

  • YDBN resins has lower softening point

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Curing Behavior

of

Epoxy resins

with

Phenolic hardeners

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

  • OCN is fastest reactive phenolic hardener

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

  • YDBN 602 is more reactive because of better structural symmetry and low melt viscosity

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

  • 2MI is more reactive compared to TPP because of alkoxide ion formation and more basicity of the 2MI catalyst

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

  • Modified resins are lower in reactivity due to the presence of acidic Phosphorus compounds.

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Possible reaction of Phosphorus Resin with Catalyst

polymerization

Ring cleavage

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

  • Phenolic reactivity trend- OCN>PN>TP>BPN

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Thermal Property

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Sample cured 175oC/6hrs

  • Concentration of catalyst effect reactivity not the final crosslink structure

  • 2-MI system gives higher Tg than TPP system

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

  • 6 hrs at 175oC is adequate curing schedule for full crosslinking

  • YDBN system shows higher Tg compared to TOCN system

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Sample cured 175oC/6hrs

  • TP shows highest Tg(230-235oC)

  • YDBN systems shows better Tg compared to TOCN system in all cases.

  • Modified resins shows lower Tg-due to high EEW and polarity.

  • Modified resins with 2MI catalyst shows Tg in range of 155-185oC depending on curing agent

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Flammability

And

Thermal Degradation

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Effect of Phosphorus content on flammability

  • 1.5% Phosphorus is adequate to get flammability rating V-O

  • YDBN resins shows better flammability rating compared to TOCN

  • TPP catalyst shows better flammability rating than 2MI

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

  • YDBN resins shows better thermal degradation stability

  • P- resins shows initial loss at low temperature but Tmax is higher than unmodified resins

  • TPP cured system shows better overall degradation stability

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

  • YDBN 602 char yield is higher than TOCN 4030- better flammability.

  • Incorporation of phosphorus increases char yield dramatically.

  • TPP cured system shows better char yield than 2MI

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Mechanical Property

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Electrical property

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Conclusion:

  • Halogen free YDBN-P and TOCN-P resins could be material of choice where high glass transition temperature (170-190oC) or flammability is desired for electrical and electronics applications.

  • YDBN series of resins were found comparable to TOCN resins in terms of mechanical, electrical and thermal properties with distinct advantage of lower melt viscosity which could be advantageous for better wetting or lower coating thickness requirements.

  • Curing agents could be selected depending on process/ performance requirements. TP has exhibited higher Tg with low melt viscosity where as low functionality PN could be used for moderate Tg requirement.

  • 2MI as catalyst lead to higher Tg of cured matrix compared to TPP.

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

  • Acknowledgement:

  • Sincerely thanks

  • Management of TOCC

  • All Colleagues Somsak, Satid, Thithikan and Thaniya

  • Mr. Wutti of Mettler Toledo, Thailand

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Thank you

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


Novel halogen free epoxy resin for high performance electronic applications

Any Question?

TRFA Annual meeting, Florida, USA


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