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G7 Chapter 14The Early Americas (12,000 BC - AD1000)


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G7C14 Key Terms and People


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100

Answer

a sharp, glasslike volcanic rock

Maize

Obsidian

Maya Civilization

Palenque

Maya Society


100

200

Answer

It reached its height between about AD 250 and 900 centered around the Yucatan Penninsula in Mesoamerica (present day Mexico).

Maize

Obsidian

Maya Civilization

Palenque

Maya Society


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300

Answer

corn; staple crop of the Americas

Maize

Obsidian

Maya Civilization

Palenque

Maya Society


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400

Answer

Upper Class - king, priests, professional Warriors and merchants

Lower Class - farmers and slaves

Maize

Obsidian

Maya Civilization

Palenque

Maya Society


100

500

Answer

The ancient Maya city of ___________ was a major power on the border between the Maya highlands and lowlands. Its great temples and plazas were typical of the Classic Age of Maya civilization.

Maize

Obsidian

Maya Civilization

Palenque

Maya Society


100

600

Answer

corn; staple crop of the Americas

Maize

Obsidian

Maya Civilization

Palenque

Maya Society


100

700

Answer

Upper Class - king, priests, professional Warriors and merchants

Lower Class - farmers and slaves

Maize

Obsidian

Maya Civilization

Palenque

Maya Society


100

800

Answer

It reached its height between about AD 250 and 900 centered around the Yucatan Penninsula in Mesoamerica (present day Mexico).

Maize

Obsidian

Maya Civilization

Palenque

Maya Society


100

900

Answer

a sharp, glasslike volcanic rock

Maize

Obsidian

Maya Civilization

Palenque

Maya Society


100

1000

Answer

The ancient Maya city of ___________ was a major power on the border between the Maya highlands and lowlands. Its great temples and plazas were typical of the Classic Age of Maya civilization.

Maize

Obsidian

Maya Civilization

Palenque

Maya Society


100

G7 Chapter 15The Aztec and Inca Empires (1325-1537)


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G7C15 Key Terms and People


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100

Answer

It covered half the territory of present day Mexico.

The Aztec Empire6. Aztec Society

Tenochtitlan 7. The Inca Empire

Conquistadors8. Atahualpa

Hernan Cortes9. Francisco Pizarro

Moctezuma10. Inca Society


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200

Answer

It covered the South American western coast from the north to the south along the Andes mountain ranges.

The Aztec Empire6. Aztec Society

Tenochtitlan 7. The Inca Empire

Conquistadors8. Atahualpa

Hernan Cortes9. Francisco Pizarro

Moctezuma10. Inca Society


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300

Answer

1485–1547 - After arriving on the coast of Mexico, he burned his ships so his men couldn’t return home. They had no choice but to stay and fight with him. In the end they conquered the Aztecs, partly due to his leadership and determination to find gold. Also, the Spanish had a huge advantage by having guns and the Aztecs only having arrows.

The Aztec Empire6. Aztec Society

Tenochtitlan 7. The Inca Empire

Conquistadors8. Atahualpa

Hernan Cortes9. Francisco Pizarro

Moctezuma10. Inca Society


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400

Answer

Kings ruled the empire and lived in luxury. Nobles served as important officials, such as tax collectors and judges. Priests performed many important duties, such as keeping calendars. Warriors fought to conquer other peoples and capture victims for sacrifice. Merchants traded goods like food, clothing, and tools. At the bottom of society, farmers and slaves were left. Slaves who disobeyed orders were sacrificed to the gods.

The Aztec Empire6. Aztec Society

Tenochtitlan 7. The Inca Empire

Conquistadors8. Atahualpa

Hernan Cortes9. Francisco Pizarro

Moctezuma10. Inca Society


100

500

Answer

This was the capital of the Aztec Empire. To build this amazing city, the Aztecs had to overcome many geographical challenges.

The city’s island location made travel and trade difficult. To make it easier to get to and from their city, the Aztecs built three wide causeways—raised roads across water or wet ground—to connect the island to the shore. The causeways were made of rocks covered with dirt.

It was surrounded by water, but the water was undrinkable. As a result, the Aztecs built a stone aqueduct, or channel, to bring fresh water to the city.

The Aztec Empire6. Aztec Society

Tenochtitlan 7. The Inca Empire

Conquistadors8. Atahualpa

Hernan Cortes9. Francisco Pizarro

Moctezuma10. Inca Society


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600

Answer

Spanish soldiers in the Americas who explored new lands, searched for gold and silver, and tried to spread Christianity.

The Aztec Empire6. Aztec Society

Tenochtitlan 7. The Inca Empire

Conquistadors8. Atahualpa

Hernan Cortes9. Francisco Pizarro

Moctezuma10. Inca Society


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700

Answer

The king, priests, and government officials made up the upper class.

For the lower class, most were farmers, artisans, or servants. There were no slaves in Inca society. Lower-class men and women farmed on government lands, served in the army, worked in mines, and built roads.

Parents taught their children how to work, so most children didn’t go to school. But some carefully chosen young girls did go to school to learn weaving, cooking, and religion. Then they were sent to serve the king or work in the temple in Cuzco.

Lower-class Incas lived outside Cuzco in small houses. By law they had to wear plain clothes. Also, they couldn’t own more goods than they needed.

The Aztec Empire6. Aztec Society

Tenochtitlan 7. The Inca Empire

Conquistadors8. Atahualpa

Hernan Cortes9. Francisco Pizarro

Moctezuma10. Inca Society


100

800

Answer

1466–1520 - He ruled the Aztec Empire at its height, but he also contributed to its downfall. The tribute he demanded from neighboring tribes made the Aztecs unpopular. In addition, his belief that Cortés was Quetzalcoatl allowed Cortés to capture him and eventually conquer the empire.

The Aztec Empire6. Aztec Society

Tenochtitlan 7. The Inca Empire

Conquistadors8. Atahualpa

Hernan Cortes9. Francisco Pizarro

Moctezuma10. Inca Society


100

900

Answer

1502–1533 - He was the last Inca king. He was brave and popular with the Inca army, but he didn’t rule for long. A Spanish friar offered him a religious book to convince him he should accept Christianity. He held the book to his ear and listened to it. When the book didn’t speak, he threw it on the ground. The Spaniards used this as a reason to attacks.

The Aztec Empire6. Aztec Society

Tenochtitlan 7. The Inca Empire

Conquistadors8. Atahualpa

Hernan Cortes9. Francisco Pizarro

Moctezuma10. Inca Society


100

1000

Answer

1475–1541 - He organized expeditions to explore the west coast of South America. His first two trips were mostly unsuccessful. But on his third trip, his luck changed. With only about 180 men, he conquered the Inca Empire, which had been weakened by disease and civil war. In 1535 he founded Lima, the capital of modern Peru.

The Aztec Empire6. Aztec Society

Tenochtitlan 7. The Inca Empire

Conquistadors8. Atahualpa

Hernan Cortes9. Francisco Pizarro

Moctezuma10. Inca Society


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G7 Chapter 16The Age of Exploration (1400-1650)


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G7C16 Key Terms and People


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Answer

(c. 1480–1521) Portuguese explorer who sailed for Spain, his crew was the first to circumnavigate (go all the way around) the globe.

Christopher Columbus

Ferdinand Magellan

The Columbian Exchange

Mercantilism

Capitalism


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200

Answer

This was the process of plants and animals that were traded from the Old World to the New World and from the New World to the Old World.

Christopher Columbus

Ferdinand Magellan

The Columbian Exchange

Mercantilism

Capitalism


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300

Answer

(1451–1506) Italian sailor supported by the rulers of Spain, he reached the Americas in 1492.

Christopher Columbus

Ferdinand Magellan

The Columbian Exchange

Mercantilism

Capitalism


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400

Answer

an economic system in which individuals and private businesses run most industries

Christopher Columbus

Ferdinand Magellan

The Columbian Exchange

Mercantilism

Capitalism


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500

Answer

a system in which a government controls all economic activity in a country and its colonies to make the government stronger and richer

Christopher Columbus

Ferdinand Magellan

The Columbian Exchange

Mercantilism

Capitalism


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600

Answer

(1451–1506) Italian sailor supported by the rulers of Spain, he reached the Americas in 1492.

Christopher Columbus

Ferdinand Magellan

The Columbian Exchange

Mercantilism

Capitalism


100

700

Answer

(c. 1480–1521) Portuguese explorer who sailed for Spain, his crew was the first to circumnavigate (go all the way around) the globe.

Christopher Columbus

Ferdinand Magellan

The Columbian Exchange

Mercantilism

Capitalism


100

800

Answer

an economic system in which individuals and private businesses run most industries

Christopher Columbus

Ferdinand Magellan

The Columbian Exchange

Mercantilism

Capitalism


100

900

Answer

a system in which a government controls all economic activity in a country and its colonies to make the government stronger and richer

Christopher Columbus

Ferdinand Magellan

The Columbian Exchange

Mercantilism

Capitalism


100

1000

Answer

This was the process of plants and animals that were traded from the Old World to the New World and from the New World to the Old World.

Christopher Columbus

Ferdinand Magellan

The Columbian Exchange

Mercantilism

Capitalism


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G7 Chapter 17Enlightenment and Revolution (1642-1800)


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G7C17 Key Terms and People


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Answer

1694–1778 ___________ is the pen name of the French philosopher and author François-Marie Arouet. He used his wit, intelligence, and sense of justice to poke fun at religious intolerance. _________ skill and bold ideas made him a popular writer. In his writings he argued that the purpose of life is the pursuit of human happiness through progress in science and the arts.

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


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200

Answer

the idea that every man should have the right to be able to think and to worship as they please

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


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300

Answer

(1706–1790) American colonial leader, he argued that the British government had no right to tax the colonists because they had no representation in Parliament. He is the $100 bill man!

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


100

400

Answer

When did he live? 1632–1704

Where did he live? England and the Netherlands

What did he do? He worked as a professor, physician, and government official. He wrote about the human mind, science, government, religion, and other topics.

Why is he important? He believed in the right of common people to think and worship as they pleased and to own property. He also had great faith in science and people’s basic goodness. Not everyone liked his ideas. At one point he fled to Holland to avoid arrest by political enemies. His ideas have inspired political reforms in the West for some 300 years.

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


100

500

Answer

(1712–1778) French philosopher, he believed in popular sovereignty and the social contract between citizens and their governments.

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural RIghts9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


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600

Answer

The idea that governments should express the will of the people.

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


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700

Answer

This was a period during the 1600s and 1700s when reason was used to guide people’s thoughts about society, politics, and philosophy.

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


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800

Answer

A document approved in 1689 that listed rights for Parliament and the English people and drew on the principles of the Magna Carta.

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


100

900

Answer

(1689–1755) French Enlightenment thinker, he believed that government should be divided into separate branches to protect people’s freedom.

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


100

1000

Answer

Government is separated into branches to balance authority.

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


100

G7 Chapter 17Enlightenment and Revolution (1642-1800)


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G7C17 Key Terms and People


100

100

Answer

(1689–1755) French Enlightenment thinker, he believed that government should be divided into separate branches to protect people’s freedom.

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


100

200

Answer

Government is separated into branches to balance authority.

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


100

300

Answer

This was a period during the 1600s and 1700s when reason was used to guide people’s thoughts about society, politics, and philosophy.

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


100

400

Answer

The idea that governments should express the will of the people.

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


100

500

Answer

(1712–1778) French philosopher, he believed in popular sovereignty and the social contract between citizens and their governments.

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


100

600

Answer

When did he live? 1632–1704

Where did he live? England and the Netherlands

What did he do? He worked as a professor, physician, and government official. He wrote about the human mind, science, government, religion, and other topics.

Why is he important? He believed in the right of common people to think and worship as they pleased and to own property. He also had great faith in science and people’s basic goodness. Not everyone liked his ideas. At one point he fled to Holland to avoid arrest by political enemies. His ideas have inspired political reforms in the West for some 300 years.

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


100

700

Answer

(1706–1790) American colonial leader, he argued that the British government had no right to tax the colonists because they had no representation in Parliament. He is the $100 bill man!

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


100

800

Answer

the idea that every man should have the right to be able to think and to worship as they please

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


100

900

Answer

the idea that every man should have the right to be able to think and to worship as they please

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


100

1000

Answer

1694–1778 ___________ is the pen name of the French philosopher and author François-Marie Arouet. He used his wit, intelligence, and sense of justice to poke fun at religious intolerance. _________ skill and bold ideas made him a popular writer. In his writings he argued that the purpose of life is the pursuit of human happiness through progress in science and the arts.

Enlightenment6. Separation of Powers

Voltaire7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke8. Popular Sovereignty

Natural Rights9. Benjamin Franklin

Charles-Louis Montesuieu10. English Bill of Rights


100

*


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100

2. Obsidian


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200

3. Maya civilization


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300

1. Maize


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400

5. Maya Society


100

500

4. Palenque


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600

1. Maize


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700

5. Maya Society


100

800

3. Maya Civilization


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900

2. Obsidian


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1000

4. Palenque


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100

1. The Aztec Empire


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200

7. The Inca Empire


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300

4. Hernan Cortes


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400

6. Aztec Society


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500

2. Tenochititlan


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600

3. Conquistadores


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700

10. Inca Society


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800

5. Moctezuma II


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900

8. Atahualpa


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1000

9. Francisco Pizarro


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100

2. Ferdinand Magellan


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200

3. The Columbian Exchange


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300

1. Christopher Columbus


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400

5. Capitalism


100

500

4. Mercantilism


100

600

1. Christopher Columbus


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700

2. Ferdinand Magellan


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800

5. Capitalism


100

900

4. Mercantilism


100

1000

3. The Columbian Exchange


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100

2. Voltaire


100

200

4. Natural Rights


100

300

9. Benjamin Franklin


100

400

3. John Locke


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500

7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau


100

600

8. Popular Sovereignty


100

700

1. Enlightenment


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800

10. English Bill of Rights


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900

5. Charles-Louis Montesuieu


100

1000

6. Separation of Powers


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100

5. Charles-Louis Montesuieu


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200

6. Separation of Powers


100

300

1. Enlightenment


100

400

8. Popular Sovereignty


100

500

7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau


100

600

3. John Locke


100

700

9. Benjamin Franklin


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800

4. Natural Rights


100

900

4. Natural Rights


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1000

2. Voltaire


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