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Chapter 5 Accessing Files and Directories. How Directories Get Created. OS installation: usr, dev, etc, export, kernel and others places to store installation files and to store data files user accounts

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Chapter 5

Accessing Files and Directories


How directories get created
How Directories Get Created

  • OS installation: usr, dev, etc, export, kernel and others

  • places to store installation files and to store data files

  • user accounts

  • By default, users have permission to create subdirectories and files under their home directory


Directory tree
Directory Tree

inverted tree

parent directory

child directories (subdirectories)

root directory - always at top of the hierarchy, designated as a forward slash (/)


Path components
Path Components

directory paths are important so we can navigate within the system

slashes within the pathname are delimiters between object names

Object names can be directories, subdirectories or files

DOS & Win uses a backward slash (\) - UNIX uses a forward slash (/)

slash (/) in the first position of any pathname represents root directory


Types of pathnames
Types of Pathnames

  • Absolute Pathname

  • specifies the entire Solaris file hierarchy

  • start at root (/) and list each directory along the path to the destination

  • slash (/) between each directory name in the path

  • Relative Pathname

  • relates to your current directory

  • If a pathname does not begin with a slash, it is a relative pathname

  • you must know what directory you are currently in since that is your starting point

  • Absolute pathnames are usually longer but they are consistent because you specify the path from the root every time regardless of where you are


Absolute path
Absolute Path

Absolute pathname to the user2 directory

/home/user2

Absolute pathname to the dir1 directory

/home/user2/dir1

Absolute pathname to the coffees directory

/home/user2/dir1/coffees


Relative path
Relative Path

If your current directory is /home:

Relative pathname to the user2 directory

user2

Relative pathname to the dir1 directory

user2/dir1

Relative pathname to the coffees directory

user2/dir1/coffees


Command line syntax
Command Line Syntax

refers to the structure of the command

specifies allowable options and arguments

$ command [option(s)] [argument(s)]

Items in square brackets are optional, meaning they are not always required



Using navigation shortcuts
Using Navigation Shortcuts

  • pwd (print working directory) command -

  • no options or arguments

  • displays directory using absolute path name

  • cd (change directory) command -

  • used with absolute or relative pathnames to navigate

  • by itself takes you to your home directory

  • cd .. command takes you up one level

  • cd ~/ command takes you to a directory under your home directory (tilde = home)


Using ls command
Using ls Command

ls (list) listing of files and directories within the current directory or specified directories

ls -a list all files in a directory, including hidden (.) files and current (.) and parent (..) directories

ls -F command displays listing with a symbol to tell what the type the file is:

directory – A forward slash (/) after the name

ASCII Text File - no symbol

Executable – asterisk (*) after the name

Symbolic Link – An at sign (@)



Recursive listing
Recursive Listing

ls -R (recursive) command - displays the contents of all directories, subdirectories and their contents for a particular part of the directory tree

If done at a high level in the directory structure, the output can be substantial!




Labs assessment
Labs/Assessment

Lab 5.3.1 Basic Command Line Syntax

Lab 5.3.3 Navigating the File System

Lab 5.4.6 Listing Directory Information

Lab 5.5.2 Directory Listing with Metacharacters

chapter 5 assessment


Metacharacters exercise
Metacharacters Exercise

What does this command do?

$ ls *[1-5]*p


Metacharacters exercise solution
Metacharacters Exercise (solution)

What does this command do?

$ ls *[1-5]*p

lists any file, no matter what the length of the filename, if there is a 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 somewhere AND the filename ends with the letter p


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