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Appropriate Water Purification Technology and Sanitation Promotion in Rural Communities: The Dominican Republic. Dr. Pedro Bernal Chemistry Department, Rollins College, Winter Park, FL. The Magnitude of the Water Problem.

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Appropriate Water Purification Technology and Sanitation Promotion in Rural Communities:The Dominican Republic

Dr. Pedro Bernal

Chemistry Department, Rollins College, Winter Park, FL


The magnitude of the water problem
The Magnitude of the Water Problem Promotion in Rural Communities:

  • Worldwide 3.4 million people, mostly children, die annually from water-related diseases

  • Approximately 4 billion cases of diarrhea each year cause 2.2 million deaths

  • 2.4 billion people lack access to basic sanitation services

  • Sanitation coverage in rural areas is less than half that in urban areas

WHO 2000


The magnitude of the water problem1
The Magnitude of the Water Problem Promotion in Rural Communities:

Global morbidity and mortality rates of some water-related diseases.

Adopted from WHO 1995 - 2000


The magnitude of the water problem2
The Magnitude of the Water Problem Promotion in Rural Communities:


The dominican situation
The Dominican Situation Promotion in Rural Communities:

  • There are approximately 300,000 reported cases of diarrhea each year

  • Diarrheal diseases account for approximately 30.4% of all diagnosed deaths from communicable diseases

  • Acute diarrhea is the leading cause of diagnosed mortality among children aged 1 to 4

PAHO 1994


The nature of the water problem
The Nature of the Water Problem Promotion in Rural Communities:

  • Several factors influence water-related disease transmission

    • Water quality

    • Water quantity/availability

    • Personal and environmental hygiene and sanitation


Why both quality and quantity are important

W Promotion in Rural Communities:

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Why Both Quality and Quantity are Important

Diarrhea is the most important public health problem affected by water and sanitation and can be both waterborne and water-washed. -- WHO 2000


Routes of disease transmission

Excreta Promotion in Rural Communities:

Water

Flies

Hands

Food

Mouth

Routes of Disease Transmission

Courtesy of WHO: Principal elements of fecal-oral disease transmission


Impact of water quality
Impact of Water Quality Promotion in Rural Communities:

Potential reductions in morbidity of different water-related diseases as a result of improvements in water supply and sanitation

Adopted from WHO 1995


Our approach to the problem
Our Approach to the Problem Promotion in Rural Communities:

An attack on water quality . . .

  • Distribution of a technologically simple family-based water filter

  • Hygiene and sanitation promotion

  • Chemical and microbiological testing of sources and filtered water

  • Assessment of the health impact of the filter program


The system a description
The System: A Description Promotion in Rural Communities:

  • 3-bucket system designed to eliminate the bacteria responsible for water-related disease

    • Chlorination

    • Sediment removal

    • Chlorine removal


Filter distribution
Filter Distribution Promotion in Rural Communities:

  • Currently ~ 3000 units distributed throughout 40 communities


Sabaneta de yasica
Sabaneta de Yasica Promotion in Rural Communities:

Summer 2002, West Jacksonville Rotary Club

  • ~ 240 units

    • Rincon

    • La Piña

    • Islabon


Haitian dominican border
Haitian/Dominican Border Promotion in Rural Communities:

Summer 2002, Ecological Unit of the Dominican Army


Hygiene promotion
Hygiene Promotion Promotion in Rural Communities:

  • ILAC network of health promoters

  • Brochures and pictorial publications


What do we measure the who drinking water guidelines
What Do We Measure? Promotion in Rural Communities:The WHO Drinking-Water Guidelines

  • Chemical parameters

    • Turbidity < 5 NTU

    • Residual Chlorine 0.2 - 0.5 ppm

    • pH 6.5 - 8.5

  • Microbiological parameters

    • E. coli 0 cfu*/100 mL

      * colony forming units


  • Chemical testing
    Chemical Testing Promotion in Rural Communities:

    • Water from the filters and sources is analyzed for:

      • Turbidity

      • Residual chlorine

      • pH


    Microbiological testing

    Red colonies = Total coliforms Promotion in Rural Communities:

    Blue colonies = E. coli

    Microbiological Testing

    • Determine the number of “colony forming units” per 100 mL of water (cfu/100 mL)

      • Total coliforms: ubiquitous in tropical environments

      • Fecal coliforms (E. coli): indicative of fecal contamination

  • Incubation in m-ColiBlue24 for 24 hours


  • Results of Chemical and Microbiological Testing Promotion in Rural Communities:Village of “El Venú”, Dominican Republic, Summer 2001 and 2002

    • Sources

      • 2 local rivers

      • Rainwater

  • Filters


  • Chemical parameters sources
    Chemical Parameters - Sources Promotion in Rural Communities:

    • Rivers

    • Stored Rainwater

    Ranges

    Thiele & Bray 2001 - 2002


    Chemical parameters filters
    Chemical Parameters - Filters Promotion in Rural Communities:

    • 60 filters were tested

    • Total of 75 tests -- 12 filters were revisited

    Thiele & Bray, 2001 - 2002


    Why are these parameters important to the filters
    Why Are These Parameters Important to the Filters? Promotion in Rural Communities:

    • High turbidity provides a more adequate environment for microorganisms.

    • At a pH of around 6 the chlorine is almost 100% effective. As the pH increases the effectiveness of the chlorine decreases. (pH 9 ~ 5% efficacy)

    • Residual chlorine helps to maintain the disinfection.


    Results of microbiological testing sources

    • Rivers Promotion in Rural Communities:

    • Stored Rainwater

    Thiele & Bray 2001 - 2002

    Results of Microbiological Testing: Sources


    How bad can bad water be

    CATEGORY Promotion in Rural Communities:

    Fecal Coliforms/100mL

    HEALTH RISK

    A

    0

    No Risk

    B

    1-10

    Little Risk

    C

    11-50

    Intermediate Risk

    D

    >50

    High Risk

    WHO Guidelines:

    How Bad Can Bad Water Be?

    How Many Colonies are Dangerous?

    Courtesy of WHO

    “Under conditions of widespread fecal contamination, … surveillance agencies are recommended to set intermediate goals that … will not lead to improper condemnation of relatively acceptable supplies.” -- WHO 2000


    Results of microbiological testing are the filters reducing the risk

    Bacterial content of crude river water Promotion in Rural Communities:

    Bacterial content of river water after filtration

    Results of Microbiological Testing:Are the Filters Reducing the Risk?

    • 60 filters were tested

    • Total of 75 tests -- 12 filters were revisited

    Thiele & Bray 2001-2002


    Are the filters reducing the risk

    High Risk Promotion in Rural Communities:

    Intermediate Risk

    >50 cfu/100mL

    11-50 cfu/100mL

    5%

    9%

    28%

    58%

    Little risk

    No risk

    1-10 cfu/100mL

    0 cfu/100 mL

    Are the Filters Reducing the Risk?

    Thiele & Bray, 2001-2002


    Conclusions
    Conclusions Promotion in Rural Communities:

    • The “water problem” is complex, but the appropriate interventions can make a difference

    • The vast majority or filters (~90%) are producing water that presents little or no risk to the consumer

    • The reduction of water related diseases requires an improved water supply and an effective hygiene promotion program


    Future work
    Future Work Promotion in Rural Communities:

    • Distribution of filter systems in cooperation with interested organizations

    • Further development of the sanitation and hygiene education promotion

    • Continued assessment of filter performance

    • Continued student involvement in all aspects of the project


    Acknowledgements
    Acknowledgements Promotion in Rural Communities:

    • Rollins College

    • Associated Colleges of the South (ACS)

    • Operation Blessing International

    • Eagle Springs Filtration

    • Port Orange Ministerial Association

    • Institute of Latin American Concern (ILAC)

    • West Jacksonville Rotary

    • Unidad Ecológica del Ejército Nacional de la República Dominicana


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