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Academic Vocabulary. Today’s Agenda: How do words get learned and stay learned? What kinds of words are there and how do I decide how much attention to pay to them? 3. Explicit vocabulary instruction The Academic Word List: Implicit

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academic vocabulary

Academic Vocabulary

  • Today’s Agenda:
  • How do words get learned and
  • stay learned?
  • What kinds of words are there and
  • how do I decide how much attention
  • to pay to them?
  • 3. Explicit vocabulary
  • instruction
  • The Academic Word List: Implicit
  • vocabulary instruction
  • 4. Classroom practices that grow
  • vocabulary
slide2

Rich

  • Gradual
  • Cumulative
  • Recursive
  • Aggressive
  • Purposeful
  • Pervasive
  • Goals:
  • Vocabulary growth in authentic situations
  • Improved ability to derive meaning of
  • unfamiliar words
  • 3. Positive attitude about words and language

The visuals for today’s presentation are available for your classroom use.

Feel free to access them at www.amybenjamin.com

slide3

Comprehension and Vocabulary: Part I

The findings of our study also reveal that there is nothing especially

difficult about setting up a mental representation for a new lexical item as

presumably children would have to do for unknown words. For example,

for localist versions of connectionist viewpoints, it seems probable that one

would first have to create a new lexical node before orthographic,

phonological, and semantic information could become connected with it.

Presumably, if substantiating a mental representation for a new lexical

item was particularly difficult, we would expect to see that the development

of unknown words was slower than for partial knowledge words because

partial knowledge words already have an existing lexical node with

corresponding orthographic and phonological features but few semantic

features.

slide4

The Role of Context in Comprehension

A hair-raising century by Australian opener Graeme Wood on Friday set

England back on its heels in the third test at the Melbourne Cricket Ground.

Unfortunately, living desperately cost the Australians the match. Wood was

caught out of his crease on the first over after lunch. Within ten more overs,

the Australians were dismissed. Four were dismissed by dangerous running

between creases. Two were dismissed when the English bowlers lifted

the bails from the batsmen’s wickets. The three remaining batsmen were

caught by English fieldsmen. One was caught as he tried for a six. When the

innings were complete, the Australians had fallen short of the runs scored

by the English.

slide5

The United States Declaration of Independence:

When in the course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

Dissolve:

a. make a solution

b. dismiss

c. mix

d. appear gradually

Bands:

a. straps

b. obligations

c. parties

d. units

Assume:

a. infer

b. gather

c. usurp

d. lay claim to

slide9

apprentice: (n)

one bound by legal agreement

to work for another for a

specified time in return for

his training in a trade, an art,

or a business

scheme: (n, v)

a systematic plan

of action

Definition contains unfamiliar language

Definition can be too simplistic and therefore misleading

Limited information

Usually, no context

Not all of the information about a word is captured in a definition

slide10

Rate the following contexts on a scale of 1-5,

with 5 making you absolutely certain of what

the word means; 1 giving you no way to make

an educated guess.

nonchalantly

zeriliously

nonchalantly

zeriliously

nonchalant

zerilious.

nonchalant

zerilious

Learning Words Through Repeated, Varied Context

1. And he said,

,”I can waltz.”

2. The next morning I hung around the house for a while, and then

whistled my way out to the barn.

3. I just got very cool and .

3. She was being very about picking the leaves off a bit of twig broken

from the bushes, careful not to look at Jack or me.

slide11

Language Learning:

8 Words a Day

(3000 per year)

1.Deliberate learning of definitions,

examples, forms of specific,

targeted words

2. Deliberate practice in newly

learned words

10%

90%

3. Assessment on specific words

Language Acquisition:

1.Unconscious growth through

exposure and need to understand

messages

2.Grows through “comprehensible

input”

3.Use, and response to feedback

Dependent on the

learner being relaxed,

trusting, unselfconscious

slide12

1. And he said,

nonchalantly

zeriliously

,”I can waltz.”

2. The next morning I hung around the house for a while, and then

whistled my way out to the barn.

nonchalantly

zeriliously

3. I just got very cool and .

nonchalant

zerilious.

3. She was being very about picking the leaves off a bit of twig broken

from the bushes, careful not to look at Jack or me.

nonchalant

zerilious

Learning Words Through Repeated, Varied Context

slide13

“Charlotte, are you thirsty?

Would you like some juice?

What kind of juice do you

want? Do you want apple

juice? That’s the yellow juice

that you liked at Nana’s. No?

Do you want the purple juice? The grape juice?

OK. Do you want your juice in the sippy cup or

the Big Girl juice box? OK, now hold it carefully.

Two hands. Don’t squeeze it! It’ll spill all over the

place. Very carefully.Sip it through the straw.

slide14

What if ad executives taught vocabulary?

repetition

association with emotion

association with an image

humor

story

novelty

slide15

School age:

Predictive capacity

(number of words

expected to be learned

per year)

Cumulative, by age 3

(collection of spoken

words)

Emergence:

10-18 months

(words heard per hour)

…by

age

5:

Anna

500

616

750 (2 per day)

5 affirmative

11 prohibitive

2,000

Public

assistance

Sophie

1,251

700

3,000

Office and

Hospital

Workers

(not mgmt)

1500 (4 per day)

12 affirmative

7 prohibitive

James

2,153

1,100

5,000

3,000 (8 per day)

32 affirmative

5 prohibitive

Col. profs

more numbers
More Numbers:

6;30

Number of exposures to a new word during the initial lesson;

Number of exposures during the ensuing month

10-15%

Your chances of learning a word after a single exposure in context

2-3

Realistic number of words learned in a school day through explicit instruction

90-95%

Percentage of words that need to be known for the text to be

considered “instructional level” for that reader

20

Number of paragraphs of instructional level text that need to be read to

add one word to your vocabulary

8-3000

Number of words that schoolchildren need to learn every day

(3000 words per year)

25-1-1000

A fifth grader who spends 25 minutes a day reading will grow

her vocabulary by 1,000 words in a year.

slide17

1st exposure,

one context

2nd exposure,

another context

3rd exposure,

another context

4th exposure,

another context

5tht exposure,

another context

2-3: Explicit Instruction

2-3: Reading 50 paragraphs

2-4 More Words

8 words a day

slide18

Target Word:

Getting to Know the Words We Meet in Reading:

Dictionary Definition:

Visual:

Draw or find a picture:

My guess:

Definition in my own words:

Complete sentence of at least ____words:

Must contain an action verb and a visual image.

slide19

Moby Dick by Herman Melville: Chapter 42 “The Whiteness of the Whale”

What the whale was to Ahab, has been hinted; what, at times, he was

to me has been so far left unsaid.

Aside from those considerations touching Moby Dick, which could not

but occasionally waken in any man’s soul some alarm, there was another

thought, or rather vague, nameless horror concerning him, which at times,

by its intensity completely overpowered all the rest; and yet so mystical

and well nigh ineffable was it that I almost despair of putting it in a

comprehensible form. It was the whiteness of the whale that above all things

appalled me…

Though in many natural objects, whiteness refiningly enhances beauty,

as if imparting some kind of special virtue of its own, as in marbles,

japonicas, and pearls; and though various nations have in some way

recognized a certain royal preeminence in this hue; even the barbaric, grand

old kinds of Pegu placing the title “Lord of White Elephants” above all their

other magniloquent ascriptions of dominion; and the modern kings of Siam

unfurling the same snow-white quadraped in the royal standard; and the

Hanoverian flag bearing the snow-white charger; and the great Austrian

Empire, Caesarian, heir to the overlording Rome, having for the imperial

color the same imperial hue; …

of limited value
Of Limited Value…

Lists alone

Context alone

Definitions alone

Dictionaries and Glossaries alone

Of Durable Value…

Words in clusters

Leisure reading

Multiple exposures in various contexts

Chances to speak, hear, write

Manipulation of forms of words

Classify and categorize word lists

Word games, puzzles

slide22

For Discussion:

Roberto, Miri, and Li spend a half hour a day reading in school. Roberto is interested in sports, and his teacher allows him to spend his reading time reading only about his main interest, soccer.

Li’s teacher believes in variety: She requires the students to

read about at least three different topics per week.

All other things being equal, which of these students will

be more likely to have the greater language gain? Why?

(Stephen Krashen)

slide23

Consistent, Persistent

Little bit of reading time set aside

every day, distributed

throughout the day (15 minutes)

Monday: English

Tuesday: Math

Wednesday: Social Studies

Thursday: Science

Friday: Other

At first, many students

will not read.

Later, more will read.

Eventually, most will

read.

slide25

“You ask, what is our policy? I can say: It is to wage war, by sea,

land and air, with all our might and with all the strength that God

can give us; to wage war against a monstrous tyranny, never

surpassed in the dark, lamentable catalogue of human crime.

That is our policy.”

slide26

“You ask, what is our policy? I can say: It is to wage war, by sea,

land and air, with all our might and with all the strength that God

can give us; to wage war against a monstrous tyranny, never

surpassed in the dark, lamentable catalogue of human crime.

That is our policy.”

You inquire, what is our policy? I can

rejoin: It is to engage in military

confrontation, by navigable bodies of

water, by terrestrial regions, and in

the ethereal environment, with all our

fortitude and with all the potency that

the ultimate object of religious observance can give us;

to militarily oppose the object of our animosity against

a very bad bully, the worst on in the obscure, sorry list

of human malfeasance. The aforementioned encapsulates

our means and mode of operation.

slide27

“It is impossible to dissociate language from science

or science from language, because every natural science

always involves three things: the sequence of phenomena

on which the science is based; the abstract concepts that

call these phenomena to mind; and the words in which the

concepts are expressed. To call forth a concept, a word is needed;

to portray a phenomenon, a concept is needed. All three mirror

the same reality.”

--Antoine Lavoisier (1743-94)

slide28

“All I know is what I have words for.”

Ludvig Wittgenstein

1896-1951

slide29

Teach implicitly mainly through immersion

(repeated exposure in context, with

comprehensible input and

opportunity for meaningful use;

games that foster knowledge of

Latin word roots (“Whirly Words”);

puzzles that promote consciousness

of the words; use the morphology chart to

experiment with various forms and to practice

spelling

Vocabulary Instruction Decisions::

Is the word on the Academic

Word List?

Is the word encountered in literature, but

once only, not essential for understanding

the literature or likely to be

encountered again? (Novelty word)

Teach explicitly but casually and briefly, if

at all. Etymology may add interest. Optional:

“Understanding the Words We Meet in Reading”

organizer.

ex: nepenthe, bodkin, aureate, awl, Victrola, succotash, anathematize

Teach explicitly, giving examples, morphology,

synonyms, antonyms, illustrations, connotation,

etymology, if possible. Check the “Decent Exposure”

list and use it to offer multiple rich contexts..

Is the word encountered in literature,

essential for understanding, and likely

to be encountered again in another

circumstance?

ex: revel, abhorrent, inure

Teach explicitly. Offer several examples.

Embed recursive instruction as much as

possible as you teach literature, grammar,

and rhetoric.

Is the word a Tier III (technical) word

that applies only to English Language Arts

such as a literary, grammatical, or rhetorical

term? ex:irony, iambic pentameter; adverb, verbal; refrain, asyndeton

slide30

Tier 3: glossary word:

Multisyllabic

Specific to a subject area

Latin or Greek-based

topography, photosynthesis, isoceles triangle,

sedimentary, oxygenated, cartographer

Tier 2: Words of education, business,

government, religion:

Components: Prefix, root, suffix

Latin-based

elevation, formation, protrude, expansive,

isolated, remote

Tier 1: Basic conversational words: Friends & family

1 or 2 syllables

Learned naturally, through exposure

hills, grass, rocks, land, sky, clouds, fly, climb,

green, high…

slide31

Two Types of Tier Two Words:

Generic Academic

Words:

acquire, benefit, clarify, develop, evolve, grant, hierarchy, internal…

Literary Words:

allude, beneficient,

clamorous, deride,

effulgent, frugal, guile, happenstance,

insipid

slide32

Vocabulary List: The Tell-Tale Heart

Foresight: Thoughtful regard for the future

Dissimulation: Hidden under a false appearance

Vexed: Troubled, distressed, caused agitation

Sagacity: Sound judgment

Hearkening: Giving careful attention

Awe: A mixed feeling of reverence, fear, and wonder

Distinctness: Unmistakable, clearly defined

Over-acuteness: Very keen

Concealment: A means of hiding

Waned: Grown gradually less

Scantlings: Small quantities or amounts

slide33

disrupt

erupt

rupture

interrupt

subtract

extract

attract

distract

support

report

export

import

remit

submit

remit

emit

impel

repel

propel

compel

produce

introduce

reduce

induce

construct

structure

instruct

obstruct

attain

maintain

contain

retain

progress

congress

regress

aggressive

Can you think of at least 4 words for each of these roots?

port

to carry

rupt

to break

tract

to draw

or drag

mit

to send

pel

duce

to lead

to drive

struct

to build

gress

to step

tain

to hold

slide34

Tier I to Tier II

Tier II:

Tier I :

fancy

adorned, decorative, resplendent

adjacent to, proximal

near

shrink

diminish

bright

luminous, illuminated

shy

demure, retiring, reticent

door

portal

new

novel, innovative, untried

slide35

Tier I to Tier III

Tier III:

Tier I :

a song sung by one person

in an opera

aria

a style of painting using

little dots

pointilism

having two “houses” within the

law-making body

bicameral

a step-by-step procedure or

formula for solving a math problem

algorithm

fox-like

vulpine

A post-WWII movie style,

portraying grim realities

film noir

a line of poetry consisting of

10 syllables, with the accent

on every 2nd syllable

iambic pentameter

slide36

These words are collateral to the words

I will teach explicitly:

These are words I will teach explicitly

and thoroughly:

indignant

usurp

tremulous

deride

polynomial

enzyme

hedge fund

higgs boson particle

strident

commandeer

undulating

deride

These are words I will consciously

use repeatedly in the context of

teaching:

These words are interesting, but not

particularly useful. I will mention their

meanings in passing as they come up

in reading.

regulate

property

abundant

nevertheless

defenestrate

quixotic

zebu

yclept

slide37

Should I spend time teaching this word explicitly?

  • Three Questions:
  • How useful is this word? Will students be likely to encounter it again
  • soon? Is it necessary for comprehension?
  • Will teaching this word explicitly equip the students with word-learning
  • skills that can be applied to other words?
  • 3. Am I enthusiastic about this word? Can I make it interesting?
morphology chart
Morphology Chart

It’s easier to understand parts of speech than you think. Simply use the cues above. Not all words

follow the same morphology. It’s interesting to see how words morph into different forms.

morphology chart1
Morphology Chart

It’s easier to understand parts of speech than you think. Simply use the cues above. Not all words

follow the same morphology. It’s interesting to see how words morph into different forms.

slide43

The Academic Word List (AWL):

Background:The Academic Word List consists of 570 word families that are not in the most

frequent 2,000 words of English but which occur frequently over a very wide range of academic texts.

These 570 word families are grouped into ten subsets that reflect word frequency.

A word like analyze falls into Subset 1, which contains the most frequent words, while the word

adjacent falls into Subset 10 which includes the least frequent (among this list of high incidence words).

The AWL is not restricted to a specific field of study. That means that the words are useful for learners

studying in disciplines as varied as literature, science, health, business, and law.

This high-utility academic word list does not contain technical words likely to appear in one,

specific field of study such as amortization, petroglyph, onomatopoeia, or cartilage.

Two-thirds of all academic English derive from Latin or Greek.

Understandably, knowledge of the most high-incidence adademic words in English can significantly

boost a student’s comprehension level of school-based reading material. Students who are taught

these high-utility academic words and routinely placed in contexts requiring their usage are likely

to be able to master academic material with more confidence and efficiency, wasting less time and

energy in guessing words or consulting dictionaries than those who are only equipped with the most

basic 2000-3000 words that characterize ordinary conversation.

The following link gives you a two-page version of the list:

http://www.doe.in.gov/TitleI/pdf/Word_List_Feldman.pdf

Source: Coxhead, Averil. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34, 213-238.

academic word list subset 1
Academic Word List: Subset 1

analyze approach area assess assume authority available benefit concept consist context constitute contract data define derive distribute economy environment establish estimate evident factor finance formula function income indicate individual interpret involve issue labor legal legislate major method percent period principle proceed process policy require research respond role section sector significant similar source specific structure theory vary

Academic Word List: Subset 2

achieve acquire administrate affect appropriate

aspect assist category chapter commission community

complex compute conclude conduct consequent construct

consume credit culture design distinct equate element

evaluate feature final focus impact injure institute invest item

journal maintain normal obtain participate perceive positive

potential previous primary purchase range region regulate

regulate relevant reside resource restrict secure seek select

site strategy survey tradition transfer

academic word list subset 3
Academic Word List: Subset 3

alternative circumstance comment compensate component consent considerable constant constrain contribute convene coordinate core corporate correspond criteria deduce demonstrate document dominate emphasis ensure exclulde fund framework illustrate immigrate imply initial instance interact justify layer link maximize negate outcome philosophy physical proportion publish react register rely scheme sequence shift specify sufficient technical technique valid volume

Academic Word List: Subset 4

access adequacy annual apparent approximate attitude attribute civil code commit concentrate confer contrast cycle

debate despite dimension domestic emerge ethnic grant hence hypothesis implement implicate impose integrate internal investigate mechanism occupy option output overall parallel parameter phrase prior principal professional project promote regime resolve retain series statistic status stress subsequent undertake

academic word list subset 5
Academic Word List: Subset 5

academy adjust alter amend capacity clause compound consult decline discrete enable energy enforce entity equivalent evolve expand expose external facilitate fundamental generate liberal license logic margin modify monitor network notion objective orient perspective precise prime psychology pursue ratio reject revenue stable style substitute sustain symbol target transit trend version welfare whereas

Academic Word List: Subset 6

abstract acknowledge accuracy aggregate allocate assign bond capable cite cooperate discriminate display diverse domain edit enhance estate exceed explicit federal fee flexible furthermore gender incentive incorporate incidence index inhibit initiate input interval mitigate minimum ministry motive neutral nevertheless overseas precede presume rational recover reveal scope subsity trace transform underlie utilize

academic word list subset 7
Academic Word List: Subset 7

adapt advocate channel classic comprehensive comprise confirm contrary convert decade deny differentiate dispose dynamic equip eliminate empirical extract finite foundation gradient guarantee hierarchy identical ideology infer innovate insert intervene isolate media mode paradigm phenomenon priority prohibit publication quote release reverse simulate sole somewhat submit successor thesis transmit ultimate unique voluntary

Academic Word List: Subset 8

abandon accompany accumulate ambiguous appendix appreciate arbitrary automate bias chart clarify commodity complement conform contemporary contradict crucial currency denote detect deviate displace eventual exhibit exploit fluctuate guideline implicit induce inevitable infrastructure inspect intense manipulate minimize nuclear offset predominant prospect radical reinforce restore revise tension terminate theme thereby uniform vehicle via virtual widespread

academic word list subset 9
Academic Word List: Subset 9

accommodate analogy anticipate assure attain behalf cease coherent coincide commence compatible concurrent confine controversy converse device devote diminish distort duration erode ethic found format inherent insight integral intermediate manual mature mediate medium military minimal mutual norm overlap passive portion preliminary protocol qualitative refine restrain revolution rigid route scenario sphere subordinate supplement suspend trigger unify violate

Academic Word List: Subset 10

adjacent albeit assemble collapse colleague compile conceive convince depress encounter forthcoming incline integrity intrinsic invoke levy likewise nonetheless notwithstanding ongoing panel persist pose reluctance so-called straightforward undergo whereby

slide49

1. Does our instruction generate conversation about words?

2. Does our instruction

connect the target word to other words?

vocabulary content sentence vcs daily practice
Vocabulary-Content-Sentence (VCS)Daily Practice:

assume benefit concept data economy factor indicate method proceed process policy role specific structure

Write a sentence about something we are learning this week, employing

one of these words. You may change the form of the words to fit your

sentence. Your sentence must be at least 8 words long.

vocabulary content sentence vcs daily practice1
Vocabulary-Content-Sentence (VCS)Daily Practice:

analyze approach area assess assume authorityavailable benefit conceptconsist context constitutecontract data define derive distribute economy environmentestablishestimate evident factor finance formulafunction income indicateindividual interpretinvolveissue labor legal legislate major methodpercent period principle proceed processpolicy requireresearch respond role section sector significant similar source specific structure theoryvary

achieve acquire administrate affect appropriate

aspect assist category chapter commission community

complex compute conclude conduct consequent construct

consume credit culture design distinct equate element

evaluate feature final focus impact injure institute invest item

journal maintain normal obtain participate perceive positive

potential previous primary purchase range region regulate

regulate relevant reside resource restrict secure seek select

site strategysurvey tradition transfer

alternative circumstance comment compensatecomponent consent considerable constantconstrain contribute convene coordinate core corporate correspond criteria deduce demonstrate document dominate emphasis ensure exclude

fund framework illustrate immigrate imply initial instance interact justify layerlink locate maximize minor negateoutcomephilosophy physicalproportion publishreact register relyremovescheme sequenceshift specify

sufficient technical technique technology valid volume

Write a sentence about something we are learning this week, employing

one of these words. You may change the form of the words to fit your

sentence. Your sentence must be at least 8 words long.

slide52

Open Field

Academic Word List

A Plan for School-wide Vocabulary Instruction

EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION

“Focus 40” words from the Academic Word List

selected by grade level teachers: 1 word per week

2-3 words related to or associated with each of the “Focus 40”; each subject area teacher decides on related words

Subject-specific words, such as those found in a glossary

Students have more opportunities to read for a variety of purposes,

including self-selected material.

Elevated language used in class by teachers; students given

motive and opportunity to use elevated vocabulary in speech and

writing.

IMPLICIT INSTRUCTION

slide53

Word Features Matrix for the Academic Word List

Words with

3 of same

letter

Words with

double letters

Words with

one syllable

Compound

words

Words

with no E

Words

ending in

E

Words

with x, y,

or z

Words that

can be made

plural

slide54

Word Features Matrix for the Academic Word List

Words with

3 of same

letter

Words

ending in

E

Words

with two e’s

Words with

one syllable

Words with

double letters

Words that

can be made

plural

Words

with x, y,

or z

Compound

words

slide55

Word Meanings Matrix: The Academic Word List

Is directly

related to

placement

Is directly

related to

order

Is directly

related to

time

Is directly

related to

size

Begins

with:

A-D

E-J

K-P

R-Z

slide56

Subset 2

Consequence

It occurs later.

It happens as a result.

An event’s effect.

slide57

Subset 6

Incorporate

Bring into the mix—

Creating a new oneness—

Integrate the parts.

slide58

Subset 4

Implement

Employ and apply

Put to immediate use.

Get the plan to work.

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