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Tired of looking at the stars, Professor Miller takes up social psychology. ETHICAL ISSUES IN PSYCHOLOGY. Dr Fenja Ziegler. The Bystander Effect. Put volunteers in a situation where someone is in distress and needs help Number of factors influence whether people help

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ethical issues in psychology

Tired of looking at the stars, Professor Miller takes up social psychology

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP

ETHICAL ISSUES IN PSYCHOLOGY

Dr Fenja Ziegler

the bystander effect
The Bystander Effect
  • Put volunteers in a situation where someone is in distress and needs help
  • Number of factors influence whetherpeople help
  • How would you feel if you didn’t help?
  • Is it ethical to put you into this situation?

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP

landis facial expressions 1924
Landis’ Facial Expressions (1924)
  • Are facial expressions universal (e.g. shock, disgust)?
  • Paint people’s faces with lines and make them do stuff:
    • Smell ammonia
    • Watch porn
    • Hand in bucket of frogs
    • Decapitate rat (2/3 complied eventually). 1/3 Landis did himself
    • Nothing universal (but note obedience)

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP

monster bully 1939
Monster Bully (1939)
  • Do children stutter innately, or do we make them stutter?
  • Take some orphaned children and split into two groups:
    • Criticise every mistake
    • Praise for speech
  • Effects on children?
    • Loss of self-worth
    • Enduring speech problems

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP

ethics and morals issues
Ethics and Morals - Issues
  • Ethics (professionals) → Morals (common standards)
  • Cost-benefit analysis
    • Animal experiments, developing nuclear/ chemical weapons, stem cells
  • Psychology:
    • Human and other animals (care and respect)
    • Socially sensitive (e.g. IQ testing)
    • Exploitation of results (e.g. stress factors)
  • Deception, consent, protection from harm

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP

deception
Deception
  • Full information on Research
    • Asch: full information → no research
  • All deception harmful?
    • Deception or distraction? (e.g. implicit learning)
  • < damaging → > acceptable
  • > important → > acceptable
  • ? alternatives → > acceptable

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP

ditching deception
Ditching Deception?
  • Role playing
    • As real behaviour?
    • Still stressful?
  • Debriefing
    • Told purpose of experiment
    • Withdraw data
    • Leave as sane as on arrival
    • Does not justify unethical methods
    • Might not reduce distress

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP

informed consent
Informed Consent
  • Informed on:
    • What will be required
    • Purpose of research
    • Your rights (confidentiality, withdrawal, etc.)
  • Give consent
    • Children and learning impaired
    • Some experiments (incl. field experiments)
    • Retrospective; in public domain (e.g. Kitty Genovese bystanders)
    • Presumptive consent (from similar sample)
    • Prior general consent
    • Withhold data (damage done)
    • Participants (subjects)

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP

protection from harm
Protection from Harm
  • Physical Harm:
    • e.g. anxiety (seizures, sweating, etc.)
  • Psychological Harm:
    • Psychological safety (of pp)
    • Confidentiality
    • Privacy (observing in public or private places)

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP

milgram s study of obedience
Milgram’s study of Obedience
  • Milgram (1965) – Study of Authority: the way in which subjects are prepared to follow instructions to shock another subject
  • “study of memory” at Yale
  • Subject, Actor and Experimenter,

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP

stanford prison experiment zimbardo 1973
Stanford Prison ExperimentZimbardo, 1973
  • Dispositional/ situational
  • Guards and prisoners
  • Power structure
  • Terminated
  • Behaviour change

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP

difficult research issues
Difficult Research Issues
  • Language
  • Violence
  • Stress
  • Personality
  • Drugs
  • Conformity
  • ???

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP

reading
Reading
  • Eysenck, M. (2005) Psychology for AS level, (3rd ed.). Chapter 7, Section 19

All lecture slides on www.fenjaziegler.org

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP

would you take part in
Would you take part in…
  • Research on brand recognition of commercial products
  • Research on product safety
  • Research in which you will be misled about the purpose until afterwards
  • Research involving group standards

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP

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