Ethical issues in psychology
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Tired of looking at the stars, Professor Miller takes up social psychology. ETHICAL ISSUES IN PSYCHOLOGY. Dr Fenja Ziegler. The Bystander Effect. Put volunteers in a situation where someone is in distress and needs help Number of factors influence whether people help

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ETHICAL ISSUES IN PSYCHOLOGY

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Ethical issues in psychology

Tired of looking at the stars, Professor Miller takes up social psychology

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP

ETHICAL ISSUES IN PSYCHOLOGY

Dr Fenja Ziegler


The bystander effect

The Bystander Effect

  • Put volunteers in a situation where someone is in distress and needs help

  • Number of factors influence whetherpeople help

  • How would you feel if you didn’t help?

  • Is it ethical to put you into this situation?

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP


Landis facial expressions 1924

Landis’ Facial Expressions (1924)

  • Are facial expressions universal (e.g. shock, disgust)?

  • Paint people’s faces with lines and make them do stuff:

    • Smell ammonia

    • Watch porn

    • Hand in bucket of frogs

    • Decapitate rat (2/3 complied eventually). 1/3 Landis did himself

    • Nothing universal (but note obedience)

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP


Monster bully 1939

Monster Bully (1939)

  • Do children stutter innately, or do we make them stutter?

  • Take some orphaned children and split into two groups:

    • Criticise every mistake

    • Praise for speech

  • Effects on children?

    • Loss of self-worth

    • Enduring speech problems

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP


Ethics and morals issues

Ethics and Morals - Issues

  • Ethics (professionals) → Morals (common standards)

  • Cost-benefit analysis

    • Animal experiments, developing nuclear/ chemical weapons, stem cells

  • Psychology:

    • Human and other animals (care and respect)

    • Socially sensitive (e.g. IQ testing)

    • Exploitation of results (e.g. stress factors)

  • Deception, consent, protection from harm

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP


Deception

Deception

  • Full information on Research

    • Asch: full information → no research

  • All deception harmful?

    • Deception or distraction? (e.g. implicit learning)

  • < damaging → > acceptable

  • > important → > acceptable

  • ? alternatives → > acceptable

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP


Ditching deception

Ditching Deception?

  • Role playing

    • As real behaviour?

    • Still stressful?

  • Debriefing

    • Told purpose of experiment

    • Withdraw data

    • Leave as sane as on arrival

    • Does not justify unethical methods

    • Might not reduce distress

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP


Informed consent

Informed Consent

  • Informed on:

    • What will be required

    • Purpose of research

    • Your rights (confidentiality, withdrawal, etc.)

  • Give consent

    • Children and learning impaired

    • Some experiments (incl. field experiments)

    • Retrospective; in public domain (e.g. Kitty Genovese bystanders)

    • Presumptive consent (from similar sample)

    • Prior general consent

    • Withhold data (damage done)

    • Participants (subjects)

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP


Protection from harm

Protection from Harm

  • Physical Harm:

    • e.g. anxiety (seizures, sweating, etc.)

  • Psychological Harm:

    • Psychological safety (of pp)

    • Confidentiality

    • Privacy (observing in public or private places)

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP


Milgram s study of obedience

Milgram’s study of Obedience

  • Milgram (1965) – Study of Authority: the way in which subjects are prepared to follow instructions to shock another subject

  • “study of memory” at Yale

  • Subject, Actor and Experimenter,

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP


Stanford prison experiment zimbardo 1973

Stanford Prison ExperimentZimbardo, 1973

  • Dispositional/ situational

  • Guards and prisoners

  • Power structure

  • Terminated

  • Behaviour change

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP


Difficult research issues

Difficult Research Issues

  • Language

  • Violence

  • Stress

  • Personality

  • Drugs

  • Conformity

  • ???

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP


Reading

Reading

  • Eysenck, M. (2005) Psychology for AS level, (3rd ed.). Chapter 7, Section 19

    All lecture slides on www.fenjaziegler.org

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP


Would you take part in

Would you take part in…

  • Research on brand recognition of commercial products

  • Research on product safety

  • Research in which you will be misled about the purpose until afterwards

  • Research involving group standards

Lecture 4 | Social Psychology | C80FIP


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