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America Grows Up. Classroom Notes. George Washington. Precedent A standard or model for others to follow Washington is doing things for the first time It will set the standard for all others. Creation of a Cabinet. Vice President —John Adams (Fed)

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america grows up

America Grows Up

Classroom Notes

george washington
George Washington
  • Precedent
    • A standard or model for others to follow
    • Washington is doing things for the first time
    • It will set the standard for all others
creation of a cabinet
Creation of aCabinet
  • Vice President—John Adams (Fed)
  • Secretary of State—Thomas Jefferson (D/R)
  • Secretary of the Treasury—Alexander Hamilton (Fed)
  • Secretary of War—Henry Knox
  • Attorney General—Edmund Randolph
taking care of the national debt
Taking Care of the National Debt
  • Hamilton in charge of $77 million debt!!
    • Combine all state debts into one
    • Increase tariffs
    • Increase taxes
    • Create a national bank
    • Loose interpretation of the Constitution
creation of political parties
Creation of Political Parties
  • Views--Washington did not like them, he wanted all to work together
  • Federalists—see packet page
  • Democratic/Republicans—see packet page
power of the constitution
Power of the Constitution
  • Strict—If it doesn’t say you can, then you can’t (D/R)
    • Limits power of government
  • Loose—If it doesn’t say you can’t, then you can (Fed)
    • Increases power of government
french revolution
French Revolution
  • Who do we side with?
    • France—they helped us in the war, we should help them
    • Britain—most powerful country, trade, be friendly
foreign policy
Foreign Policy
    • Neutrality—Washington wants to stay out of the affairs of other countries and does this
  • Jay’s Treaty—peace treaty with Britain
  • Pinckney’s Treaty—peace treaty with Spain
whiskey rebellion
Whiskey Rebellion
  • Uprising of farmers in Western Pennsylvania
  • Washington sent in troops to crush the rebellion
  • Proved that the US government would enforce its laws
term limit
Term Limit
  • Washington said that no president should serve more than two terms
  • Precedent upheld until Franklin Roosevelt during World War II
electoral college
Electoral College
  • Washington was elected without a popular vote!!
  • Buffer between the people and the president
john adams
John Adams
  • 2nd President
  • Massachusetts
  • 1797-1801
  • Federalist
french revolution1
French Revolution
  • Adams is a Federalist, therefore he is leaning towards the British
  • Don’t Forget
  • Jay’s Treaty—Britain
  • Pinkney’s Treaty—Spain
  • What about the French?
xyz affair
XYZ Affair
  • US attempts peace with France to ensure trade and to protect American ships
  • Stop violations at sea
  • France asks for $10 million in bribes for peace
xyz affair1
XYZ Affair
  • Results:
  • Adams refuses
  • Adams is praised for not taking bribe
  • Hamilton wanted war with France
  • Peace with France won’t come until Napoleon is leader of France
alien and sedition act
Alien and Sedition Act
  • Law passed by Adams to increase the time for immigrants to become citizens (5 to 14 years), to deport disloyal immigrants, and to arrest those who speak badly about America
  • Alien—an immigrant to a country that they are not a citizen
  • Sedition—Rebellion against a government
federalists democratic republicans
Federalists/Democratic-Republicans
  • Look at your lists in the packets, again.
response to adams
Response to Adams
  • Jefferson and the Democratic Republicans think the A/S acts are unconstitutional
  • Hamilton begins to split the party after the XYZ Affair
  • States’ Rights—some states claim that they don’t have to follow a law that they think treats them unfairly
thomas jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
  • 3rd President
  • Virginia
  • 1801-1809
  • Democratic/ Republican
election of 1800 12 th amendment
Election of 1800—12th Amendment
  • Winner of Electoral College is president, 2nd place is Vice President
  • Tie between Jefferson and Aaron Burr
  • Hamilton encourages House to vote for Jefferson
  • 12th Amendment—President and vice President are placed on the same ballot (like today)
reversal of federalists policies
Reversal of Federalists Policies
  • New President, New Policies
    • A. Loose to strict interpretation of Constitution
    • B. Let Alien and Sedition Acts Expire
    • C. Ended Whiskey tax
    • D. Cut taxes and government spending
    • E. Reduced military spending (neutrality)
    • F. Wanted to eliminate national banks
acquisition of land louisiana purchase
Acquisition of Land—Louisiana Purchase
  • French leader Napoleon sells Louisiana to Jefferson for $15 million
  • Doubles the size of the United States
  • Was Jefferson a hypocrite?
  • Was it good for America?
  • Ended the loose/strict debate
lewis and clark expedition
Lewis and Clark Expedition
  • 1802—Jefferson appoints the “Corps of Discovery” led by Lewis and Clark to explore the new Louisiana Territory
  • Goal was to document the plants and animals, draw detailed maps, become friendly with the natives, find a Northwest passage
  • Guided by Sacagawea
  • Reach the Pacific Ocean in 1805, return home in 1806
trade restrictions
Trade Restrictions
  • Embargo Act of 1807—US cuts off all trade with all countries
    • Hurt the US more than others
  • Non—Intercourse Act of 1809—US cuts off trade with England and France only
    • Hurts us again
    • Makes England and France really mad
marbury v madison
Marbury v. Madison
  • Supreme Court case that establishes Judicial Review
  • Judicial Review—power of the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional
james madison
James Madison
  • 4th President
  • Virginia
  • 1809-1817
  • Democratic/ Republican
domestic unrest
Domestic Unrest
  • Embargo Act and Non-Intercourse act failed
  • Native Americans attacking on the western frontier, encouraged by Britain
  • France and Britain stealing cargo and kidnapping sailors—impressment
  • Hawks—those who want war with Britain
  • Doves—those who do not want to go to war
war of 1812
War of 1812
  • June 18, 1812—US declares war on Britain for:
    • Impressment of sailors
    • Naval violations
    • Indian attacks

Not everyone wanted this war

War ends with the Treaty of Ghent in 1814, US wins

treaty of ghent
Treaty of Ghent
  • Treaty that ends the War of 1812
  • No land lost or gained for either side
  • Many upset at the war
  • Nationalism—Extreme pride in a country
  • Sectionalism—Extreme pride in an area of the country
  • Secession—to break away from the country
james monroe
James Monroe
  • 5th President
  • Virginia
  • 1817-1825
  • Democratic/ Republican
monroe doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
  • Monroe’s attempt to secure American Neutrality
  • Monroe tells European powers to stop colonizing in North/South America
  • Still in existence today
key terms for today
Key Terms for Today:
  • Nationalism—extreme pride and loyalty towards your country
  • Sectionalism—extreme pride and loyalty towards a state, area, or section
  • Secession—to break away from the Union
slide34

1. The Native Americans:

  • Movement westward is causing tensions between the Natives and the pioneers
  • There are about 900,000 Natives that are in lands that the pioneers want to occupy
  • Many treaties were created, but most will be ignored
  • New states and territories are created but because the Natives did not agree, many battles ensued
  • For the most part, there were never really any good treaties that were made, the issue was mostly unresolved
  • Perspectives:
    • Federalists—push out the natives, gain the land
    • Dem/Reps—land is important, but not as important as the rights of the Natives
slide35

2. Sectionalism:

  • South
    • Lead by Senator John C. Calhoun (South Carolina)
    • Supported the War of 1812
    • Defended Slavery
    • Wanted limited government intervention in peoples’ lives
  • North
    • Lead by Senator Daniel Webster (New Hampshire)
    • Opposed the War of 1812
    • Slavery as evil
    • Powerful Government
  • West
    • Lead by Senator Henry Clay (Kentucky)
    • War Hawk—wanted War of 1812
    • Strong government
    • Spending on Westward Expansion
    • Canals, bridges, roads, factories, industries
slide36

The America System

—Henry Clay’s answer for the struggling American Economy

    • National Bank—Re-issued in 1816 to loan money for projects
    • Foreign Competition—Place embargoes on foreign products, threaten war for those that oppose American policies
    • Protective Tariffs—tax on imported goods
      • Protect American businesses
      • Force people to buy American goods
      • Factories and industries soared!
      • South does not like it
slide37

4. The Monroe Doctrine—Monroe’s Attempt to secure American neutrality

  • Monroe tells European powers to stop colonizing in North/South America
  • Still in existence today
  • Document shows the power of the relatively new country during Monroe’s term
  • Also opens the door for America to focus on domestic issues
  • Leads to the eventual start of the Industrial Revolution
slide38

5. The Missouri Compromise (1820)

  • Proposed by Henry Clay (the Great Compromiser)
  • As new states are added to the Union, will they be free or slave states?
  • The Compromise
    • Missouri will enter the Union as a slave state
    • Maine will enter the Union as a free state
    • A latitude line will be drawn (36-30)
      • North of that line—no slavery
      • South of that line—slavery is allowed
      • Guess what? The south doesn’t like it, they thought it was unconstitutional
john quincy adams
John Quincy Adams
  • Son of John Adams (2nd President)
  • 6th President
  • Massachusetts
  • 1825-1829
  • National Republican
monroe doctrine1
Monroe Doctrine
  • Kept Europe and the United States out of each others’ business
  • Allowed for the United States to explore and claim western territories without European interference
  • Problem—We really can’t explore this area because of a lack of knowledge—Solution??
american system
American System
  • Henry Clay comes up with a plan to take care of this problem
  • Building of roads, bridges, canals—INFRASTRUCTURE
  • Paid for by tariffs which the South does not like
  • Labor comes from all over the world, America is ready for industrialization
industry and inventions
Industry and Inventions
  • Interchangeable Parts
    • Faster, quicker, CHEAPER, more efficient means of production
    • Eli Whitney
slide43

Cotton Gin

    • Faster, quicker, cheaper, more efficient means of production
    • Eli Whitney
    • Greatly increased demand for slavery, spread slavery
slide44

Steam Engine

    • Great innovations in boat and rail transportation
    • Faster, quicker, cheaper, more efficient
    • Robert Fulton and the Clermont
slide45

Creation of Factories and Factory Systems

    • Increased demand for goods
    • Expansion of the country
    • Mass of immigrants to the United States (Irish potato famine)
    • Industrial Revolution
    • Factory towns, Lowell’s Girls
slide46

Erie Canal

    • Connected Lake Erie to the Hudson River (Atlantic Ocean)
    • Cut freight cost dramatically, decreased shipping time
    • Connected the Mid West to the rest of the world
andrew jackson
Andrew Jackson
  • 7th President
  • 1829-1837
  • Democrat (Old Democratic/ Republican)
  • Tennessee
spoils system
Spoils System
  • Spoils System: giving government jobs to friends and supporters
  • a. opposite of the “merit system” where jobs would go to those who were most qualified
  • b. his policies broke the upper class stronghold on government jobs and positions
  • c. Many loved this policy, many resented it
electoral college1
Electoral College

Electoral College

  • a. Jackson vowed to eliminate the Electoral College after his loss to John Q. Adams in 1824
  • b. In this election, Jackson won more electoral and popular votes but not a majority, the House of Representatives voted for John Q. Adams
  • c. Jackson, as president, has no authority to do this, but wanted to eliminate in anyway
indian removal act
Indian Removal Act
  • a. Jackson signs into law the forced removal of Natives into lands west of the Mississippi River
  • b. Natives were lied to, robbed, and imprisoned if they did not cooperate
  • c. Although the Supreme Court said that the natives (also citizens) could not be forcibly removed, Jackson went against the decision and kicked them out of their lands anyway
  • d. Jackson’s policy was cheered by most Americans, but he overstepped his executive privilege
  • e. The journey that many tribes took to the new reservations was called the “Trail of Tears”
tariffs
Tariffs
  • a. Jackson lowers the tariff rates but demands that the states pay it (compromise)
  • b. Southern states refuse to pay, making Jackson furious
  • c. South Carolina threatens secession, Jackson threatens troops
  • d. First real talk about secession the threat of breaking away
national banks
National Banks
  • a. Jackson vetoes the charter to renew the national bank
  • b. Jackson felt that the ideas of interest hurt many Americans who worked hard and had little money and favored those who did not work hard and had lots of money
  • c. Jackson vetoed more laws than any previous president
  • d. His behaviors greatly increased the power of the presidency and propelled the presidency as the most powerful of the three branches
  • e. Does his power need to be controlled?
slide53

King Andrew I1. How is Andrew Jackson dressed? How does the way he is dressed explain the cartoon’s caption?2. Was the comparison of Jackson to a king meant as praise or criticism? Explain.3. What paper is Jackson holding in his hand? What incident is the cartoonist referring to with the paper?4. What pieces of paper are lying on the floor beneath Jackson? To what incidents might these objects refer?5. What do you think the cartoonist thought of Jackson? Explain.6. How, in your opinion, was the cartoonist trying to influence American public opinion toward Jackson?7. Analyze this cartoon further using the 8 steps to analyzing a political cartoon on the back of this sheet.

key terms for james polk
Key Terms for James Polk
  • Polk was an expansionist and someone who believed in Manifest Destiny
  • Expansionist: People who believed in expanding the nation’s borders as far as possible
  • Manifest Destiny: Idea that it was America’s priority and responsibility to own land from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean
slide56

During Polk’s term, a lot of things are happening:

  • Texas seeks independence from Mexico and wants to become a state
  • The United States goes to war with Mexico
  • Newly acquired land from Mexico will result in new states being admitted to the Union
  • Pioneers heading west on the Oregon Trail into new territories that will eventually become new states

5. Gold discovered in California!!

1848—gold discovered in California

1849—California gold rush

1850—California wants to become a state

problems between the different sections sectionalism on the rise
Problems between the different sections (sectionalism on the rise!)
  • Missouri Compromise (1820)

-South claims that it is unconstitutional

slide58

Texas Annexation/Mexican Cession

-Texas claims independence from Mexico and becomes their own country!

-Mexico wants to take it back, so Texas asks to become a state for protection

-Problems? Admitting Texas will add a big chunk of land to the United States, however, it will be a slave state and will probably get the United States involved in a war with Mexico

-Texas is admitted, the US goes to war with Mexico and wins, gaining a larger piece of land called the Mexican Cession

-The lands of the Texas Annexation and Mexican Cession want to become states

slide59

Compromise of 1850

-California is admitted as a free state

-Mexican Cession divided into the Utah and New Mexico territories, the people in those territories would decide on slave or free (vote), this was called popular sovereignty

-The slave trade was abolished in Washington, D.C.

-Fugitive Slave law passed—any runaway slave to the north had to be returned to the south

slide60

South hates it, why?

-California is free

-No slave trade in D.C. (south feared that it would eventually mean slavery is abolished everywhere)

  • North hates it, why?

-Fugitive slave law passed (means slavery is legal everywhere)

-Allows popular sovereignty (means slavery could be legal everywhere)

-Voids/repeals the Missouri Compromise

slide61

Kansas/Nebraska Act (1854)

-The new territories of Kansas and Nebraska want to become states

-Law allowed for the people to decide (vote, popular sovereignty)

-Seems like a good idea, right?

-Slaves have no say in the issue

-leads to fighting and riots prior to the elections (Bleeding Kansas)

slide62

Can you see how sectionalism is on the rise?

Can you see how a Civil War may be brewing?

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