Bee Stings ( H y m e n o p t e r a ). Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management of Systemic Reactions by Deborah Wolff-Baker. Pathophysiology of an allergic reaction.
Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management of
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated release of histamines, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and other inflammatory factors, causing local or systemic symptoms.
Prevalence and Frequency of Stings in the United States:
itching, stomach ache, nausea or vomiting?
If history suggests anaphylaxis is imminent, institute treatment immediately!
Bee sting with erythema
one joint area
Mild Local Reactions:
Large Local Reactions:
and taper over 4-7 days
Systemic Allergic Reaction:
(Administer above the sting site.)
And, if severe anaphylaxis,
maintain airway and
call 911 immediately for
ambulance transport to ER !