Citations
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Citations. Why we need them in academic papers Part of the process of building on other people’s work; peer-review To follow up (interested want to know more) To verify (curious, skeptical about finding, skeptical about accuracy of paraphrase)

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Citations

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Citations

Citations

  • Why we need them in academic papers

  • Part of the process of building on other people’s work; peer-review

    • To follow up (interested want to know more)

    • To verify (curious, skeptical about finding, skeptical about accuracy of paraphrase)

      • “High concentrations of exogenous dopamine has been proven to restore the sensitivity of D2 receptors to normal (Seeman, Guan and Van Tol, 1993)” [my reaction was “Really?? The reference allowed me to check]

    • To know to whom to attribute a finding or conclusion (we reject statements such as “It’s widely known”; it’s been established)

      • In fact, in academic writing, very little accepted on authority or as “common knowledge”


Citations

  • Example from Introductory section of recent article on advances is diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease (Ikonomovic, Klunk, Abrahamson, Mathis, Price, Tsopelas et al., 2008):

  • “Clinically symptomatic Alzheimer’s disease can be diagnosed with high accuracy at academic centres (Lopez et al., 2000a), but diagnosis in the community is less accurate (Pearl, 1997). Non-Alzheimer’s disease dementia cases are not infrequently misdiagnosed as Alzheimer’s disease (Mayeux et al., 1998)…”

    • These authors have expertise in field of Alzheimer’s diagnosis, yet…..

    • Implication: >>>>


Citations

  • If you state: “Marijuana is the most widely used psychoactive drug among today’s youth.”

  • What’s your source? Why should we have confidence in that statement Something you’ve assumed; or stating because you heard it somewhere? Q. is where?

    • In fact, not true


Examples of unattributed statements from student papers

Examples of unattributed statements from student papers:

  • “A lot of the stress causing panic attacks is sub-conscious. A person doesn’t realize their own thoughts”

    • [aside from poor phrasing and grammaticity: older view; not widely believed; I’d like to know source- what led student to this belief? Was it an appropriate reference?]

  • “Cocaine is another kind of strong drug [how defined?]. It is more powerful than marijuana. [by what criterion? Reference?]”


Examples from student papers where having proper citation was useful important

Examples from student papers where having proper citation was useful/important

….


In text within text citations

In-text (within-text) citations

  • These are the brief references to sources that appear in the body of the text

    • In APA format, they provide just enough info to unambiguously lead reader to the full reference in the bibliography

    • To learn where they’re used, and how they vary, carefully examine an article done in APA format

      • e.g., see Michael Bozarth’s article in Reader (p. 51-58), “Pleasure systems in the brain”

      • Then consult an APA within-text citation guide as needed (see link on my “Brain & Behavior” homepage)


Citations

  • Don’t remember where it’s permissible to use “et al.”? – look it up!

  • Quick summary:

    • In text: Up to 5 authors- name all 1st time; give just lead author’s name followed by “et al.” if you cite again.

      • More than 5 authors: Use the lead author + “et al.” format from the start

  • In bibliography: Up to 6 authors: Name all of them (don’t mimic ProQuest format!)

    • More than 6 authors: List 1st 6, followed by “et al.”


Is apa style the correct format

Is APA-style the “correct” format

  • What’s wrong with superscripts + endnotes?

  • Why isn’t naming the first 4 authors of a multi-author article good enough? (ProQuest does it- surely they’re not wrong!

    • Not “wrong”: simply different formats

    • There are good reasons to use a consistent format

  • Why APA?

    • Because we have decreed it!

    • Truly, because most widely used in psychology and social sciences


The need for a consistent citations format

The need for a consistent citations format

  • Information you need for citing a reference may come from variety of sources

    • notes you wrote on scrap of paper when reading article onscreen or a book

    • printout of an article located through ProQuest or PubMed

    • article reprinted in the course Reader

  • The formats in which the bibliographic information appears may differ from source to source >>


Citations

Typical Proquest citation info:

An examination of the role that intercollegiate athletic participation plays in academic achievementMaloney, Michael T, McCormick, Robert E., Kinsbourne, Barry J.The Journal of Human Resources. Madison: Summer 1993. Vol.28, Iss. 3; p. 555 (16 pages)

How this should appear in APA format (academic journal reference):

Maloney, M.T., McCormick, R.E. & Kinsbourne, B.J. (1993). An examination of the role that intercollegiate athletic participation plays in academic achievement.The Journal of Human Resources, 28 (3),555-570.


General problem

>>> general problem

  • Many students copy information blindly

  • Don’t include information just because you have it (e.g. ProQuest lists it).

    • e.g., Proquest lists location of publisher of academic journal- but you don’t need (shouldn’t use) this info for article citation

    • Learn the APA requirements for the type of source you’re citing

      • Note: they differ for academic journals, magazines, books, web documents, etc.

    • Pull out just the info you need; look up anything that’s missing (in the article itself!)

    • “translate” where necessary


Apa citations common misunderstandings common errors

APA citations: Common misunderstandings, common errors

  • A journal article found in an online database or on a website requires the same information as for the original

    • PLUS “retrieved from” statement


Citations

  • A very common error:

    • Copeland, J. (2005). Cannabis-related problems and their management. Retrieved March 9, 2006 from Proquest database

      • What’s missing?

        • The name of the journal (and volume number and page references)

      • Why it’s important: [discuss]

        • Gives reader quick info about the source >> establishes reliability (and appropriateness)


Citations

The proper reference:

  • Copeland, J. (2005). Cannabis-related problems and their management. Drugs and Alcohol Today, 5, 20-25. Retrieved March 9, 2006 from Proquest database

    • What this info told me:

      • Not a peer-reviewed journal

      • Quite unreliable

  • The “retrieved from” statement supplies supplemental information. Purpose:

    • May help reader access article

    • To resolve possible issues where online version differs from print version


Citations

  • An even worse example of a bibliography citation:

  • http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/reprint/183/3/

    (this was the entire citation!)


Another common error

Another common error

Arnold, P.D. & Richter, P.A. (2001, November). Is obsessive-compulsive disorder an autoimmune disease? Journal of the Canadian Medical Association, 165 (10), 1353-1358.

  • What’s the problem here?

    • In APA format, you don’t include the month for academic/scientific journals

    • Picky-picky?

      • Not really: It’s an important clue as to nature of source; e.g., would be used for magazine like Discover


As previously noted

As previously noted:

  • Don’t copy information blindly

  • Establish the nature of your source (journal article; article in multi-author book with editor; anonymous online article, etc.

  • Review the APA requirements for the type of source you’re citing (Learn the most common ones!)

    • Note: they differ for academic journals, magazines, books, web documents, etc.

  • From the information at hand, pull out just the info you need, look up anything missing.


Citations

  • Tip: Always use the .pdf version of of an article if available

    • More accurate representation of the original

    • Can get the publication info from the article title and header/footers

  • Tip: Proquest’s “APA formatted” citations are NOT READY FOR PRIME TIME! Many errors.


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