The pentateuch ii
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The Pentateuch (II). The Meaning of Torah. Individual Pronouncement Num 19:14; 31:21; Exod 12:49 Laws on Similar Subject Num 6:13, 21; Lev 6:9 Particular Collection of Laws Exod 20:1-17; 24:12; Deut 31:9 General Description for God’s Law Gen 26:5; Exod 18:16; Deut 4:8

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The Pentateuch (II)

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The pentateuch ii

The Pentateuch (II)


The meaning of torah

The Meaning of Torah

  • Individual Pronouncement

    • Num 19:14; 31:21; Exod 12:49

  • Laws on Similar Subject

    • Num 6:13, 21; Lev 6:9

  • Particular Collection of Laws

    • Exod 20:1-17; 24:12;Deut 31:9

  • General Description for God’s Law

    • Gen 26:5; Exod 18:16; Deut 4:8

  • Combination of Narrative and Law

    • Deut 1:5


The mosaic covenant law and worship

The Mosaic Covenant: Law and Worship

  • Torah expresses the will of God

  • The law preserved the sense of God’s presence in 2 ways:

    • The Priestly law: dwelling of God among his people

    • Character of Yahweh pervades all the law collections

  • God’s redeeming grace as a foundation for living under the law


The mosaic covenant

The Mosaic Covenant

  • The covenant was associated with God’s promise

  • To enable Israel to live as God’s people. E.g. Israel should imitate

    • God’s holiness (Lev 19:2)

    • compassion (Ex 22:26-27)

    • justice (Deut 16:18-20)

    • merciful to aliens (Lev 19:33-34), slaves (Deut 15:12-15)


Nash papyrus 2 nd century bc hebrew decalogue

Nash Papyrus 2nd Century BC Hebrew Decalogue


Four main collections of laws

Four main collections of laws

  • Decalogue (Exod 20:1-17; Deut 5:1-21; Exod 34:10-28) and the Book of the Covenant (aka the Covenant Code) in Exod 20-23.

  • Tabernacle Law (Exod 25-40)

  • The Laws of Leviticus (Lev 1-27)

  • The Laws of Deuteronomy or Deuteronomic Code (Deut 12-26)


Different ways of grouping laws

Different ways of grouping laws

  • Division by content:

    • moral

    • civil

    • ceremonial

  • Division by form-critical method:

    • Apodictic

    • Casuistic


Alt s categorization

Alt’s categorization

  • Apodictic: unconditional, categorical assertion

    • Prohibitions in the Ten Commandments: “You shall not kill” (e.g. Exod 20:13)

    • Active participle laws (e.g. Exod 21:12)

    • Curses (e.g. Deut 27:24)


Alt s categorization1

Alt’s categorization

  • Casuistic law: defines a specific case, e.g. Ex 21:18-19

    • Twofold formulation: a protasiswith a “when” or “if” clauses, and an apodosis “then” stating the legal consequences of the case

    • Units of casuistic laws are logically ordered, similar cases are treated together and juxtaposed to cases with different rulings


The uniqueness of the decalogue

The Uniqueness of the Decalogue

  • The Decalogue is the “foundation scroll of the Israelite community”

  • Special role within ancient Israel

    • Given directly by God (Exod 20:1, 18-19; Deut 4:12; 5:4, 21)

    • Written by the “Fingers of God” (Exod 31:18; 32:16; 34:1, 28; Deut 4:13; 5:19; 9:10), accompanied by theophany

    • Placed in the Ark of the Covenant (Deut 10:1-4)


Role of decalogue in the cult

Role of Decalogue in the Cult

  • A basic formal affirmation in the religion of Israel

  • Apply to all individual in Israel

  • Conditions for membership

  • Renewal of Obligation


Role of decalogue

Role of Decalogue

  • Each of the 10 Commandments (except the last one) appears in a similar form elsewhere in the Pentateuch


Parallels to the decalogue in other parts of the pentateuch

Parallels to the Decalogue in other parts of the Pentateuch

  • First 2 commandments: Exod 20:3-6 // Exod 34:14; Deut 5:9b; Exod 23:24; 34:17; Lev 19:4; 26:1; Mica 5:12 etc

  • 3rd (20:7)//Lev 19:12; 5:22

  • 4th (20:8-11)//the Covenant Code (23:12; 34:21;; Deut 5:13-14) and the Priestly Code (Exod 31:12-17; 35:1-3; 16:29-30; Lev 19:3; 23:3; 26:2; Num 15:32-35; Jer 17:21-27)


Parallels to the decalogue cont

Parallels to the Decalogue Cont.

  • 5th (20:12) //in the affirmative (Lev 19:4) as well as in the negative formulation: Exod 21:15; 21:17; Lev 20:9; Deut 27:16; 21:18-21

  • 6th (20:13) cf. Exod 21:12; Lev 24:17; Num 35:30-34; Deut 19:11-13

  • 7th (20:14) cf. Lev 18:20; 20:10; Deut 22:22; Num 5:11-30

  • 8th (20:15) cf. Lev 19:11; Exod 22:1-12 (casuistic laws)

  • 9th (20:16) // Exod 23:1; Deut 19:16-19 (casuistic)


Other law collections that resemble the decalogue

Other law collections that resemble the Decalogue

  • Lev 19

  • Deut 27:15-26

  • Ezek 18 and 22

  • Psalms 15, 24

  • Isa 33:14-15


Discussion on the ethical authority of the old testament

Discussion on the ethical authority of the Old Testament

  • Luther

  • The dispensationalists

  • The theonomic approach

  • More comprehensive approaches:

    • Jubilee Centre

    • Key for Christians: Jesus’ relationship to the law

    • Wright’s concept


Wright s assumption of the ethical use of the ot

Wright’s Assumption of the Ethical Use of the OT

  • The authority and relevance of the OT for Christians

  • The unity of Scripture

  • The priority of grace

  • The mission and purpose of Israel

  • The function of the law in relation to the mission of Israel

  • Israel and its law as paradigmatic


Wright s method of appropriation of the ot laws for today

Wright’s Method of appropriation of the OT laws for today

  • Distinguish the general categories of the OT law

  • Analyze the functions of particular laws and institutions

  • Define the objective(s) of particular laws

  • Preserve the objective but change the context


Case study

Case Study

  • Lev 19:18-19

    • While moral relevancy of v.18 is clear, v.19 is puzzling, how do we appropriate that?

  • Deut 12:1-7

    • How do we apply this law today?


Hazor canaanite high place

Hazor Canaanite High Place


Arad israelite temple

Arad Israelite Temple


Taanach cult stand

Taanach Cult Stand


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