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Table of Contents. Body Organization and Homeostasis The Skeletal System Diagnosing Bone and Joint Injuries The Muscular System The Skin. Section 1: Body Organization and Homeostasis. Think about how many parts of your body are involved in getting and eating your lunch

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Table of contents

Table of Contents

  • Body Organization and Homeostasis

  • The Skeletal System

  • Diagnosing Bone and Joint Injuries

  • The Muscular System

  • The Skin


Section 1 body organization and homeostasis

Section 1: Body Organization and Homeostasis

  • Think about how many parts of your body are involved in getting and eating your lunch

  • Your body is always busy and each part of the body has a specific job to do

  • All parts of your body work together so smoothly that you don’t even notice it

  • The smooth function of the body is due to the organization of your body

  • The levels of organization in the human body consist of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems


Cells

Cells

  • The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in a living thing

  • The human body has about 1 trillion cells

  • Cells cannot be seen without a microscope because they are so small


Structures of cells

Structures of Cells

  • Cell Membrane: outside boundary of the cell

  • Nucleus: control center that directs the cell’s activities

  • Cytoplasm: Jelly-like clear liquid contained in the cell that contains many structures called organelles


Functions of cells

Functions of Cells

  • Cells carry on processes that keep organisms alive

  • Ex: Molecules from digested food undergo chemical reactions that release energy for the body’s activities

  • Cells grow and reproduce

  • Cells get rid of waste products


Tissues

Tissues

  • A tissue is a group of similar cells that perform the same function

  • There are 4 basic types of tissues

    • Muscle Tissue – contract or shorten, carries out movement

    • Nervous Tissue – carries electrical messages back and forth between the brain and other parts of the body

    • Connective Tissue – Provides support to the body and connects all its parts (ex: bone, fat, blood)

    • Epithelial Tissue – covers surfaces of your body inside and out (ex: skin, lining of organs)


Organs and organ systems

Organs and Organ Systems

  • Organ: Structure that is composed of different types of tissue working together to do the same job (ex: heart, lungs, kidneys, skin)

  • Organ System: Group of organs that work together to perform a major function (ex: heart is part of the circulatory system)


Organs and organ systems1

- Body Organization and Homeostasis

Organs and Organ Systems

  • Each organ in your body is part of an organ system, which is a group of organs that work together to perform a major function.


Homeostasis

Homeostasis

  • Homeostasis is the body’s tendency to keep an internal balance. Homeostasis is the process by which an organism’s internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment.

  • Example: Body temperature, blood sugar levels, water levels, blood pressure, etc.


Maintaining homeostasis

Maintaining Homeostasis

  • Your body has a variety of ways to maintain homeostasis:

    • sweat

    • shiver


Stress and homeostasis

Stress and Homeostasis

  • Sometimes things can happen to disrupt homeostasis. As a result, your heart might beat more rapidly or your breathing may increase. These reactions of your circulatory or respiratory systems are signs of stress.

  • Stress is the reaction of your body to potentially threatening, challenging or disturbing events.

  • Adrenaline is a chemical released by your endocrine system in response to stress. Adrenaline gives you a burst of energy and prepares your body to take action.

  • Your body reacts to Stress!!


Outlining

- Body Organization and Homeostasis

Outlining

  • An outline shows the relationship between main ideas and supporting ideas. As you read, make an outline about body organization and homeostasis. Use the red headings for the main ideas and the blue headings for the supporting ideas.

Body Organization and Homeostasis

  • Cells

    • Structures of Cells

    • Functions of Cells

  • Tissues

  • Organs and Organ Systems

  • Homeostasis

    • Homeostasis in Action

    • Maintaining Homeostasis

    • Stress and Homeostasis


Cell specialization

- Body Organization and Homeostasis

Cell Specialization

  • Click the Video button to watch a movieabout cell specialization.


End of section body organization and homeostasis

End of Section:Body Organization and Homeostasis


Section 2 the skeletal system

Section 2: The Skeletal System

  • Just like a building you have a framework called a skeleton

  • Your skeleton is made up of all the bones in your body (skeletal system)

  • You have 206 bones in your body


What the skeletal system does

- The Skeletal System

What the Skeletal System Does

  • Your skeleton has five major functions. It provides shape and support, enables you to move, protects your organs, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and other materials until your body needs them.


Shape and support

Shape and Support

  • Your skeleton determines the shape in your body

  • The backbone (vertebral column) is the center of your skeleton

  • You have 26 small vertebrae that connect with each other all the way up your vertebral column

  • Like a beaded necklace, the vertebral column allows your body to move and bend

  • If your backbone was just one bone, you would not be able to bend


Movement and protection

Movement and Protection

  • Your skeleton allows you to move

  • Most bones have muscles attach to allow you to move

  • Bones also protect the vital organs in your body

    • Ex: the skull protects the brain


Production and storage of substances

Production and Storage of Substances

  • Some of your bones produce substances that your body needs

  • The long bones of your arms and legs are like factories that make all different kinds of cells

  • Bones also store minerals like calcium and phosphorous

  • When the body needs these minerals, the bones release small amounts


Immovable and movable joints

Immovable and Movable Joints

  • A joint is a place in the body where two bones come together

  • Joints allow bones to move in different ways

  • There are two types of joints in the body

    • Movable: allows wide range of movement, held together by ligaments

      • Cartilage is found at the end of bones and protects the bones from rubbing together

  • Immovable: Some joints between bones allow little to no movement like the bones of the skull


Joints of the skeleton

- The Skeletal System

Joints of the Skeleton

  • A joint is a place in the body where two bones come together. Joints allow bones to move in different ways.


Bones strong and living

- The Skeletal System

Bones—Strong and Living

  • Bones are complex living structures that undergo growth and development.


Bone structure

Bone Structure

  • Sketch the a long bone such as the femur

  • Compact Bone: beneath the outer layer is a hard dense layer of the bone called the compact bone. Small canals run through the compact bone that carry blood vessels and nerves

  • Spongy Bone: a layer of bone just inside the compact bone that is lightweight but strong. Much of spongy bone is found at the ends of long bones and contains red bone marrow which produces red blood cells

  • Medullary Cavity: carries yellow bone marrow which stores fat


Bones strength

Bones Strength

  • The structure of bone makes it strong and lightweight

  • 20% of a person’s body weight is comprised of bone

  • Bones get their strength partly from the minerals like phosphorous and calcium


Bone growth

Bone Growth

  • Bones are alive because they contain cells and tissues like blood and nerves

  • Bones also form new bone tissue as you grow

  • Sports contribute to the strength of bones by stimulating new growth in your bone tissue

  • New bone tissue will form after you have an accident such as breaking a bone in your body


Bone development

Bone Development

  • When you were an infant, your skeleton was primarily cartilage

  • Over time, most of the cartilage was replaced with bone


Taking care of your bones

Taking Care of Your Bones

  • A combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise are important for a lifetime of healthy bones

  • Diet – A well-balanced diet includes lots of calcium and phosphorous to keep your bones healthy (meats, whole grains, leafy green veggies, and dairy)

  • Exercise – Plenty of exercise provides your bones with the opportunity to stimulate bone growth (weight bearing exercise)


Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis

  • As people grow older, they lose some of the minerals stored in their body

  • This mineral loss can lead to osteoporosis

  • Osteoporosis is a condition in which the body’s bones become weak and break easily (hip, spin, wrist)

  • Osteoporosis is more common in women than in men

  • Regular exercise and a well-balanced diet can help prevent osteoporosis


Movable joints activity

- The Skeletal System

Movable Joints Activity

  • Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about movable joints.


Asking questions

- The Skeletal System

Asking Questions

  • Before you read, preview the red headings. In a graphic organizer like the one below, ask a what or how question for each heading. As you read, write answers to your questions.

Question

Answer

What does the skeleton do?

The skeleton provides shape and support, helps you to move, protects organs, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and other materials.

Joints can move forward or backward, in a circle, in a rotating motion, and in a gliding motion.

How do joints move?

How strong are bones?

Bones can absorb more force without breaking than granite or concrete.

What can I do to care for my bones?

Eat a well balanced diet and get

plenty of exercise.


End of section the skeletal system

End of Section:The Skeletal System


Comparing and contrasting

- Diagnosing Bone and Joint Injuries

Comparing and Contrasting

  • When you compare and contrast things, you explain how they are alike and different. As you read, compare and contrast X-rays and MRIs by completing a table like the one below.

Procedure

X-Rays

MRI

Effect on body cells

Can cause damage

Causes no damage

Types of injuries identified

Bone (fracture and dislocation)

Bone and soft tissue

Magnetic energy causes atoms to vibrate, which forms a pattern that is converted into an image

Pass through soft tissue and are absorbed by bone; bone shows on film

How they work

Cost

Low cost

High cost


Links on medical technology

- Diagnosing Bone and Joint Injuries

Links on Medical Technology

  • Click the SciLinks button for links on medical technology.


Section 3 diagnosing bone and joint injuries

Section 3: Diagnosing Bone and Joint Injuries


Common skeletal system injuries

Common Skeletal System Injuries


Fractures dislocations and sprains

Fractures, Dislocations and Sprains


Identifying injuries

Identifying Injuries


Treating injuries

Treating Injuries


End of section diagnosing bone and joint injuries

End of Section:Diagnosing Bone and Joint Injuries


Section 4 the muscular system

Section 4: The Muscular System


Types of muscle

Types of Muscle


Skeletal muscle

Skeletal Muscle


Smooth muscle

Smooth Muscle


Cardiac muscle

Cardiac Muscle


Muscles at work

- The Muscular System

Muscles at Work

  • Because muscle cells can only contract, not extend, skeletal muscles must work in pairs. While one muscle contracts, the other muscle in the pair relaxes to its original length.


Muscles work in pairs

Muscles Work in Pairs


Muscular strength and flexibility

Muscular Strength and Flexibility


Previewing visuals

- The Muscular System

Previewing Visuals

  • When you preview, you look ahead at the material to be read. Preview Figure 15. Then, in a graphic organizer like the one below, write three questions that you have about the diagram. As you read, answer your questions.

Types of Muscle

Q. How does skeletal muscle help my body move?

A. Skeletal muscles are attached to the ends of bones and provide the force to move them.

Q. Where is smooth muscle found?

A. The inside of many internal organs

Q. Why is cardiac muscle considered a special type?

A. It is found only in the heart; it is like smooth muscle because it is involuntary and like skeletal muscle because it is striated.


Skeletal muscles

- The Muscular System

Skeletal Muscles

  • Click the Video button to watch a movieabout skeletal muscles.


More on muscle types

- The Muscular System

More on Muscle Types

  • Click the PHSchool.com button for an activityabout muscle types.


End of section the muscular system

End of Section:The Muscular System


Section 5 the skin

Section 5: The Skin


Skin functions

Skin Functions


The epidermis

- The Skin

The Epidermis

  • The skin is organized into two main layers: the epidermis and the dermis.


The epidermis structure and function

The Epidermis Structure and Function


The dermis

The Dermis


Caring for your skin

Caring For Your Skin


Sunscreen ratings

- The Skin

Sunscreen Ratings

  • The graph shows how sunscreens with different sun protection factor (SPF) ratings extend the time three people can stay in the sun without beginning to get a sunburn.


Sunscreen ratings1

The height of each bar represents the amount of time that person can spend in the sun before burning.

Reading Graphs:

What does the height of each bar in the graph represent?

- The Skin

Sunscreen Ratings


Sunscreen ratings2

20 minutes; 80 minutes; 5 hours

Interpreting Data:

How long can person B stay in the sun without sunscreen before starting to burn? With a sunscreen of SPF 4? SPF 15?

- The Skin

Sunscreen Ratings


Sunscreen ratings3

Person C would need to use SPF 15 sunscreen because SPF 4 would protect the individual for only four hours.

Inferring:

Suppose that person C was planning to attend an all-day picnic. Which sunscreen should person C apply? Use data to support your answer.

- The Skin

Sunscreen Ratings


Sunscreen ratings4

SPF 15 is 3.75 times more effective at preventing sunburn. Calculations: 2.5 hours compared to 40 minutes, or 150 minutes/40 minutes = 3.75; 5 hours compared to 80 minutes, or 300 minutes/80 minutes = 3.75

Calculating:

Which is more effective at preventing a sunburn–a sunscreen with SPF 4 or one with SPF 15? How much more effective is it? Show your work.

- The Skin

Sunscreen Ratings


Sunscreen ratings5

It stands for the level of protection against sunburn—the higher the level, the greater the protection. SPF 4 means a person can safely stay four times as long in the sun; SPF 15—15 times as long.

Drawing Conclusions:

What does the number in the SPF rating stand for? (Hint: Note the length of time each person can stay in the sun without sunscreen, and compare this value to the length of time each can stay in the sun using SPF 4. Then do the same for SPF 15.)

- The Skin

Sunscreen Ratings


Identifying main ideas

- The Skin

Identifying Main Ideas

  • As you read the section titled “The Body’s Tough Covering,” write the main idea—the biggest or most important idea—in a graphic organizer like the one below. Then write five supporting details. The supporting details give examples of the main idea.

Main Idea

The skin has several important functions.

Detail

Detail

Detail

Detail

Detail

The skin forms a barrier against disease-causing microorganisms and loss of fluids.

The skin helps the body maintain a steady temperature.

The skin helps to eliminate wastes through perspiration.

The skin contains nerves that gather information about the environment.

Skin cells produce vitamin D that helps your body absorb calcium.


Links on the skin

- The Skin

Links on the Skin

  • Click the SciLinks button for links on the skin.


End of section the skin

End of Section:The Skin


Graphic organizer

Graphic Organizer

Muscles

can be

Involuntary muscles

Voluntary muscles

include

include

Smooth muscles

Cardiac muscles

Skeletal muscles


End of section graphic organizer

End of Section:Graphic Organizer


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