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Unit II. Neuroscience and Behavior. Part I. Neurons. A nerve cell Basic unit of information processing; building block of the brain and nervous system 100 billion neurons in the human brain and CNS! (and 400 trillion synapses !)

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neuron

A nerve cell

    • Basic unit of information processing; building block of the brain and nervous system
    • 100 billion neurons in the human brain and CNS! (and 400 trillion synapses!)
    • A grain of sand-size part of the human brain holds 100,000 neurons!
Neuron
structure

Dendrite (receives impulse)

    • Branching extensions of a neuron / receive messages / conduct impulses toward the cell body
  • Axon (transmits impulse)
    • Extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands
    • Remember: “Axons speak, dendrites listen…”
  • Myelin Sheath (speeds impulse)
    • A layer of fatty cells segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons
    • Speeds transmission of neutral impulses
    • When it wears out
      • Alzheimer\'s (impedes transmissions affecting thought process)
      • Multiple sclerosis: interferes with muscle control (as message to muscles is impeded..)
Structure
communication

Action Potential

    • Aneural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
    • Stimulated when neuron receives signals from sense receptors stimulated by heat, pressure or light
    • Generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane
Communication
neural communication what one neuron tells another neuron is simply how much it is excited
Each neuron has a threshold…
    • the level of stimulation required to
    • trigger an action potential (or neural impulse)
  • Threshold is determined by excitatory (accelerator) and inhibitory (brakes) triggers that determine the action potential (neural impulse)
Neural Communication“What one neuron tells another neuron is simply how much it is excited.”
electrochemistry
Neurons generate electricity from chemical events (like batteries)
  • The chemistry to electricity process involves the exchange of ions
  • Ions: electrically charged atoms
Electrochemistry
slide9
Resting Potential
    • Fluid inside a resting axon has negatively charged atoms
    • Fluid outside the axon membrane has positively charge atoms
    • Natural state of inside / outside ions = resting potential
  • Axon’s surface is selectively permeable (it decides what it allows in)
  • Neuron fires
    • Axon opens gates (selectively permeable) and + charged sodium ions flood the membrane
  • + sodium ions cause depolarization
    • Depolarization causes reaction as axons pass the impulse down the chain (like dominoes)
    • Opens and closes 100-1000 times /second!
Ions
reaching a neuron s threshold
Refractory Period
    • Once impulse has been passed, the axon pumps + ions back out of membrane, and thus recharges
  • All or none response
    • Increased stimulus does not increase the action potential’s intensity (a gun either fires or doesn’t)
Reaching a Neuron’s Threshold
neural communication

Cell body end

of axon

Direction of neural impulse: toward axon terminals

Neural Communication
neural communication1
Synapse (Where the action is)
    • Gap between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
    • Tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft (less than a millionth of an inch!)
  • Neurotransmitters
    • Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
    • Neurotransmitters bind to receptor sites (“lock and key”) on the receiving neuron
      • Influence whether it will generate a neural impulse
    • They are ions passed on to new neuron: exciting or limiting its readiness to fire
    • Reuptake
    • Excess neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the sending neuron
Neural Communication
the nervous system

Nervous System: the body’s electrochemical information network

  • Components of the Nervous System
    • Central Nervous System (CNS)-Internal command center made up of the brain and spinal cord
    • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)-Connects CNS with sense receptors, muscles, and glands
  • Nerves: large bundles of neurons
    • Sensory Neurons: Info from tissues and organs to the CNS for processing
    • Motor Neurons: Info from CNS back out to the body
    • Interneurons: Complex system of neurons that processes info in the CNS
    • Reflex: Single sensory neuron+single motor neuron+interneuron
The Nervous System
peripheral nervous system

Two components: somatic and autonomic

    • Somatic: Allows us to move our skeletal muscles
    • Autonomic: Controls glands and muscles of our internal organs (e.g. heartbeat)
      • Operates on its own (but can be consciously overridden)
  • Autonomic Nervous System also has two components
    • Sympathetic: Arouses (reaction to stress—fight or flight)
    • Parasympathetic: Calms (when stress subsides)
    • Sympathetic and parasympathetic systems work together to keep us at a steady state
Peripheral Nervous System
somatic or autonomic

Sneezing

  • Turning the page
  • High-fiving your friend
  • Kissing a date
  • Coughing
  • Digesting
Somatic or Autonomic?
nervous system breakdown

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=ivk_irrH1WYhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=ivk_irrH1WY

Nervous System Breakdown
central nervous system

Brain and Spinal Cord

  • Reflexes rely on the CNS
    • Action occurs without feeling: message stops at the spinal cord and never reaches the brain!
    • “Feeling” hits when the message reaches the brain
  • Brain is the computer of the body
    • Collection of neural networks
    • Learning allows us to build neural networks (think foreign languages!)
Central Nervous System
neural network

Neurons in the brain

connect with one

another to form networks

Inputs

Outputs

The brain learns by modifying

certain connections in

response to feedback

  • Learning builds connections
    • Feedback! Output affects the process
  • Computer simulations using these networks also learn!
  • Neurons that fire together, wire together!
Neural Network
the endocrine system

Communication method #2

  • Chemical communication
    • Hormones
    • TissuebloodTissue
    • Hormones that affect the brain
  • Speed: sloooooow. Messages are slower and effects last longer
The Endocrine System
hormones

Chemical Messengers

  • Move from tissue to tissue through the blood stream
  • Hormones that affect the brain influence interest in sex, food, and aggression
Hormones
major glands

Adrenal: DANGER! Gland

    • Fight or flight response
    • Acrivitated by the autonomic nervous system
    • Location: top of kidney
    • Hormones: epinephrine (adrenal)/norepinephrine (non adrenal)
    • Effects: increased heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar (energy!)
  • Pituitary: Master Gland
    • Sex Gland
    • Location: core of the brain, pea size
    • Controlled by the hypothalamus (part of the brain)
    • Hormones: Various sex hormones
    • Effects: Puberty, reproduction

Useful place: http://www.hormone.org/hormones-and-health/what-is-the-endocrine-system/endocrine-glands-and-types-of-hormones

Major Glands
pre test

Answer the following as true or false.

  • The larger the brain, the smarter the animal.
  • The brain’s structure is a better indicator of intelligence than it’s size.
  • The right side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and so on with the left.
  • You fall in love with your heart, not your brain.
  • Your brain uses 20% of your body’s energy, but makes up only 2% of your body’s weight.
Pre-Test
slide31

Your brain is about the size of a cantaloupe and is wrinkled like a walnut.

  • Your brain feels like a ripe avocado and looks pink because of the blood running through it.
  • The baby’s brain grows 3x in size during its first year.
  • At birth, the human brain weighs 4/5 of a pound, while an adult’s weighs about 3 pounds.
  • Your brain generates about 25 watts of power while awake- or enough to illuminate a light bulb.
a typical human brain

Contains about 100 billion neurons

  • Consumes about ¼ of the body’s oxygen
  • Spends most of the bodies calories
  • Is 70% water
  • Weighs about 3 pounds
A Typical Human Brain
sections of the brain

Basic (“Old”) Components of the Brain

Works unconsciously (even while sleeping!)

  • Brainstem
  • Thalamus
  • Limbic System
  • Cerebral Cortex

Advanced (“New”) Components of the Brain

Sections of the Brain
brainstem

Oldest section of the human brain

  • Central core of the brain
  • Begins where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull
  • Responsible for automatic survival functions
Brainstem
the brain stem

Medulla: first piece of the brainstem

    • Location: base of the brain above the spinal cord
    • Controls heartbeat and breathing
  • Pons
    • Above the medulla
    • Helps coordinate movement and facial expression
    • Connects midbrain to hindbrain
  • Reticular Formation
    • Structure: Finger shaped network of neurons
    • Location: spinal chord to the thalamus
    • Filters info from the spinal cord, essential for arousal and sleep
The Brain Stem
the brain stem con t

The Cerebellum

    • Location: Rear of the brainstem
    • Structure: Baseball sized
    • Enables nonverbal learning and memory, allows us to judge time, regulate emotions, discriminate sound and texture, coordinates voluntary movement and maintains balance through fine muscle movements
  • Thalamus (THIS IS IN THE FOREBRAIN!!)
    • Location: Top of the brain stem
    • Structure: Egg-shaped
    • Receives info from the senses (minus smell), directs it to the proper area of the cortex, then takes replies and sends it to the medulla and cerebellum. Sensory switch board
The Brain Stem Con’t
the forebrain new brain

Useful place: http://www.columbia.edu/cu/psychology/courses/1010/mangels/neuro/anatomy/structure.html

  • Controls thoughts and reasoning
  • Thalamus is technically part of the forebrain
The Forebrain (New) Brain
limbic system

Structure: Donut shaped system of neural networks

  • Components: hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus
  • Location: border of brainstem and cerebral hemispheres
  • Associated with emotions: fear and aggression and drives: hunger and sex
Limbic System
amygdala

Structure: almond shaped neural clusters

  • Influence aggression and fear
    • Stimulation results in aggression, terror, and docility
    • Processing memory and perception of these emotions
  • Remember: One component for these emotions
  • Amygdala lesions created during psychosurgery do not always result in calmer humans
Amygdala
hypothalamus

Location: Below the thalamus; think hypo=below (as in hypothermia)

  • Functions
    • Performs body maintenance: pieces influence hungry, thirst, body temp, sexual behavior
    • Controls the pituitary
    • Closely linked to emotion
  • Commands come from other parts of the brain (for…neural impulses) and by monitoring blood chemistry (for…hormones)
  • Hypothalamus ALSO secretes hormones!
  • Reward center
Hypothalamus
hippocampus

Predominant function is memory

  • When suffering from Alzheimer\'s this is the first area to show damage
Hippocampus
cerebral cortex

Enables perception, thought, and speech

  • Cerebral cortex is to cerebral hemispheres as bark is to a tree
  • More cerebral cortexgreateradaptabilitility
  • Structure: wrinkled, 80% of weight is in the hemispheres, 20-23 billion nerve cells in the cortex!
Cerebral Cortex
glial cells

Glue Cells

  • Guide neural connections
  • Provide nutrients
  • Insulate Myelin
  • Clean extra ions and neurotransmitters
  • More sophisticated the brain, more glial cells
Glial Cells
lobes

Four lobes of the cortex

  • Frontal Lobes
  • Parietal Lobes
  • Occipital Lobes
  • Temporal Lobes
Lobes
motor functions

Motor Cortex (Foerster and Penfield): arc shaped area in the back of the frontal lobe running from ear to ear

  • Left brain stimulation moves right side of the body and vice versa
  • Neural prosthetics
Motor Functions
sensory functions

Somatosensory Cortex (Penfield): arc shaped area behind Motor Cortex in the front of the parietal lobe

  • More sensitive areas=larger brain area
  • Occipital Lobe: back of brain, receive visual information
  • Auditory Cortex in the Temporal Lobe: thumb shaped and above the ear, receive auditory information. Processes even “fake” sounds!
Sensory Functions
association area

Remaining sections of the cortex

  • Integrate information: pair new info with memories
  • Frontal Lobe: judge, plan, process new memories, inhibition, personality
  • Parietal Lobe: mathematical and spatial reasoning, facial recognition
Association Area
language

Aphasia: impaired use of language

  • Broca’s Area: Speak (can still sing and understand speech)
  • Wernicker’s Area: Speech comprehension and expression (gibberish)
  • Angular Gyrus: Reading aloud
  • Connections (e.g. reading allowed requires visual info, turned into auditory info, then made into meaning, then spoken
Language
plasticity

Brain’s ability to modify itself post damage

    • Ex. Other fingers will become more sensitive if you lose one
    • Evident as feeling in the phantom limb
  • Creation of new brain cells
    • Stem cells
Plasticity
split brain

Corpus Callosum: network of nerves connecting brian hemispheres

    • Help communicate information from one hemisphere to the other (Gazzangia)
  • Right Brain: facial recognition, emotion, simple requests, perception, intuitive responses, drawing, emotions, figurative, subtle
  • Left Brain: deliberate, logical reasoning, calculating, speech, literal
Split Brain
split brain research

Goal: control epileptic seizures

  • Isolate the 2 hemispheres by cutting the corpus callosum
  • Testing the “split brain” proves specific functions of each hemisphere
Split Brain Research
the split brain experiment dr gazzaniga 1967 stare at the dot
he.art
  • Which word would the split-brain patient verbalize seeing? Why?
  • Which word, when asked to point with his left hand, would he report seeing? Why?
The Split Brain ExperimentDr. Gazzaniga- 1967Stare at the Dot…..
the split b rain
If this visual was shown to the right hemisphere of a split brain patient, how might the patient identify the object?The Split Brain
fun facts
Subjects can simultaneously draw different figures with the left and right hand.
  • When the two hemispheres are at odds, the left will rationalize reactions it doesn’t understand.
  • The hemispheres are an “odd couple”, each with “a mind of its own.”
Fun Facts
active hemisphere
Simple requests

Perceiving objects

Decision making (deliberative)

Quick intuitive responses

Recognizing faces

Perceiving , expressing emotion

Active Hemisphere
handedness

More people are right handed

  • Left handedness is more common in males
  • Lefties
    • Process speech in either side of brain (versus righties who process in the left)
    • More often have reading disabilities, allergies, and migraines
    • More common among musicians, mathematicians, pro baseball players, architects, and artists
    • Decline with age…
  • Prenatal or genetic
Handedness
computed tomography cat scan

Multiple x-ray pictures = 3D image of brain structure

  • Structure only- not function
  • Tumors, physical abnormalities
Computed Tomography (CAT) Scan
positron emission tomography pet scan

Can measure amount and movement of chemical fuel, glucose, in the brain

  • Clues on brain’s activity: the more glucose used, the more activity
  • Neurotransmitters and drugs
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan
magnetic resonance imaging mri

Like CAT, but used magnetic fields to measure density and location of brain material

  • Soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
functional mri fmri

Reveals brains’ functioning as well as its structure (MRI + PET)

  • Compares multiple closely sequenced MRIs
  • Watches brain “light up” by concentrations of blood flow to specific areas
Functional MRI (fMRI)
gaba and glutamate
GABA

Inhibitory neurotransmitter

Undersupply = seizures, tremors, insomnia

Glutamate

Excitatory neurotransmitter

Involved in memory

Too much = migraines, seizures

Excitotoxicity: “excite a neuron to death” (glial cells help prevent)

Chinese food- MSG (glutamate) = headaches

Gaba and Glutamate
acetylcholine
ACh
  • Triggers muscle contraction
  • Movement
  • Learning
  • Memory
  • Undersupply = Alzheirmer’s
Acetylcholine
endorphins
“Endorphins make you happy”
  • Natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters
  • Body’s built in morphine
  • Linked to pain control and to pleasure
  • “Runners high”
  • Opium/heroine addicts
  • brain stops producing natural opiates, thus “withdraws”
Endorphins
norepinephrine
Regulates Mood
  • Too much = mania / too little = depression
  • Imbalance = bipolar disorder
Norepinephrine
serotonin
Sleep, eating, mood
  • Related to depression
  • Prozac (anti-depressant drug) raises serotonin levels
Serotonin
dopamine
Perceptual awareness, muscle control
  • Too much = Schizophrenia(up to 6x more dopamine)
    • A Beautiful Mind/The Soloist
  • Too little = Parkinson’s Disease (tremors)
    • Muhammad Ali
Dopamine
drugs affect neurotransmission
Drugs can be used to affect communication at the synapse
  • Agonistsexcite, or mimic the neurotransmitters or block reuptake
    • Drug addicts and withdraw
  • Antagonistsblock, or inhibit neurotransmitters signal
    • Ex. Botox: botulism blocks Ach
  • A complicated process: Brain has blood-brainbarrier that blocks out unwanted chemicals
Drugs Affect Neurotransmission
remember
Communication within the neuron is…….
  • Electrical
  • Communication between neurons is….
  • Chemical
Remember
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