Chapter 4 – The Spread of Islam
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Chapter 4 – The Spread of Islam. Section Notes. Video. Early Expansion Muslim Empires Cultural Achievements. Islamic Traditions and the World Today. Maps. History Close-up. Early Muslim Conquests Trade in the Muslim World The City of Córdoba The Ottoman Empire

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Chapter 4 – The Spread of Islam

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Chapter 4 e2 80 93 the spread of islam

Chapter 4 – The Spread of Islam

Section Notes

Video

Early Expansion

Muslim Empires

Cultural Achievements

Islamic Traditions and the World Today

Maps

History Close-up

Early Muslim Conquests

Trade in the Muslim World

The City of Córdoba

The Ottoman Empire

The Safavid Empire

The Mughal Empire

The Blue Mosque

Quick Facts

Chapter 4 Visual Summary

Images

The City of Córdoba

Islamic Achievements

Islamic Achievements (continued)


Chapter 4 e2 80 93 the spread of islam

Early Expansion

7.2.4

7.2.5

  • The Big Idea

  • Conquest and trade led to the spread of Islam, the blending of cultures, and the growth of cities.

  • Main Ideas

  • Muslim armies conquered many lands into which Islam slowly spread.

  • Trade helped Islam spread into new areas.

  • A mix of cultures was one result of Islam’s spread.

  • Islamic influence encouraged the growth of cities.


Main idea 1 muslim armies conquered many lands into which islam slowly spread

After Muhammad’s death, Abu Bakr became the first caliph, the title that Muslims use for the highest leader of Islam.

Caliphs were not religious leaders, but political and military leaders.

Abu Bakr directed a series of battles against Arab tribes who did not follow Muhammad’s teachings.

Main Idea 1: Muslim armies conquered many lands into which Islam slowly spread.


Growth of the empire

Muslim armies battled tribes that did not follow Muhammad’s teachings.

The Muslim armies united Arabia, then defeated the Persian and Byzantine empires.

After years of fighting Muslim armies, many Berbers, a native people of North Africa, converted to Islam and joined forces with the Arabs.

A combined Berber and Arab army invaded Spain and conquered it in AD 711.

Growth of the Empire


Main idea 2 trade helped islam spread into new areas

Along with their trade goods, Arab merchants took Islamic beliefs to new lands.

Islam spread to India, Africa, Malaysia, and Indonesia.

Trade also brought new products to Muslim lands and made many people rich.

Travelers learned how to make paper from the Chinese.

Merchants brought crops of cotton, rice, and oranges from India, China, and Southeast Asia.

Muslim merchants set up trade businesses in Africa.

Main Idea 2:Trade helped Islam spread into new areas.


Main idea 3 a mix of cultures was one result of islam s spread

As Islam spread through trade, warfare, and treaties, Arabs came into contact with people who had different beliefs and lifestyles.

Language and religion helped unify many groups that became part of the Islamic world.

Muslims generally practiced tolerance, or acceptance, with regard to these people.

Jews and Christians in particular could keep their beliefs.

Main Idea 3: A mix of cultures was one result of Islam’s spread.


Main idea 4 islamic influence encouraged the growth of cities

Baghdad

Capital of Islamic Empire

Located near land and water trade routes

Walled city

Built hospitals, observatories, and a library that was used as a university

Cordoba

Capital of what is now Spain

Strong economy based on agriculture and trade

By the AD 900s, was the largest and most advanced city in Europe

Great center of learning

Also a center of Jewish culture

Main Idea 4: Islamic influence encouraged the growth of cities.


Chapter 4 e2 80 93 the spread of islam

Muslim Empires

7.2.4

  • The Big Idea

  • After the early spread of Islam, three large Islamic empires formed—the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal.

  • Main Ideas

  • The Ottoman Empire covered a large area in eastern Europe.

  • The Safavid Empire blended Persian cultural traditions with Shia Islam.

  • The Mughal Empire in India left an impressive cultural heritage.


Main idea 1 muslims ruled the ottoman empire which was a political and cultural force

The Ottomans were aided by slave soldiers called Janissaries.

They had new gunpowder weapons, such as the cannon.

Mehmed II and Suleyman I led conquests that turned the Ottomans into a world power.

During Suleyman’s rule, the Ottoman Empire reached its cultural peak.

Poets wrote beautiful works.

Architects turned Istanbul into a Muslim city.

Women had limited freedom.

Main Idea 1:Muslims ruled the Ottoman Empire, which was a political and cultural force.


Ottoman government and society

The sultan, or Ottoman ruler, issued laws and made all major decisions in the empire.

Ottoman society was divided into two classes.

Judges and people who advised the sultan were part of the ruling class.

Those who didn’t fit into the ruling class made up the other class. Many of these were Christians or Jews from lands the Ottomans had conquered.

Ottoman Government and Society


Main idea 2 the safavid empire blended persian cultural traditions with shia islam

A conflict arose over who should be caliph.

Islam split into two groups.

The Shia thought that only members of Muhammad’s family could become caliphs.

The Sunni thought it did not matter as long as they were good Muslims and strong leaders.

Main Idea 2: The Safavid Empire blended Persian cultural traditions with Shia Islam.


The safavid empire

The Safavid Empire began when the Safavid leader Esma’il conquered Persia and made himself shah, or king.

He made Shiism the official religion of the empire.

The Safavids blended Persian and Muslim traditions.

The manufacturing of traditional products, such as handwoven carpets, silk, and velvet, was encouraged.

The Safavid Empire


Main idea 3 the mughal empire in india left an impressive cultural heritage

Babur established the Mughal Empire, but it grew mostly under an emperor named Akbar.

Akbar’s tolerant policies helped unify the empire.

A conflict of cultures led to the end of this empire, but resulted in a culture unique to the Mughal Empire.

Cultures that blended in the empire included

Muslims

Hindus

Persians

Indians

Main Idea 3:The Mughal Empire in India left an impressive cultural heritage.


Chapter 4 e2 80 93 the spread of islam

Cultural Achievements

7.2.6

  • The Big Idea

  • Muslim scholars and artists made contributions to science, art, and literature.

  • Main Ideas

  • Muslim scholars made advances in various fields of science and philosophy.

  • Islam influenced styles of literature and the arts.


Main idea 1 muslim scholars made advances in various fields of science and philosophy

Muslim scholars made advances in astronomy, geography, math, and science.

Many ancient writings were translated into Arabic.

Main Idea 1: Muslim scholars made advances in various fields of science and philosophy.


Cultural achievements

Geography

Geographers made more accurate maps than before, mostly due to the contributions of al-Idrisi.

Math

The Muslim mathematician al-Khwarizmi laid the foundations for modern algebra.

Astronomy

They made improvements to the astrolabe, which the Greeks had invented to chart the positions of the stars.

Cultural Achievements


More scholarly advances

Medicine

The Muslims’ greatest scientific achievements may have come in medicine.

A doctor named Ar-Razi discovered how to diagnose and treat the deadly disease smallpox.

Philosophy

The Muslim philosophy focused on spiritual issues, which led to a movement called Sufism.

Sufism teaches that people can find God’s love by having a personal relationship with God.

More Scholarly Advances


Main idea 2 islam influenced styles of literature and the arts

Literature

Two forms of literature were popular in the Muslim world—poetry and short stories.

Architecture

The greatest architectural achievements were mosques. They often had a dome and minarets—narrow towers from which Muslims are called to prayer.

Patrons, or sponsors, used their wealth to pay for elaborately decorated mosques.

Main Idea 2:Islam influenced styles of literature and the arts.


More islamic influences

Art

Because they could not represent people or animals in paintings due to their religion, Muslim artists turned calligraphy, or decorative writing, into an art form.

They used this technique to decorate buildings and mosques.

More Islamic Influences


Chapter 4 e2 80 93 the spread of islam

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