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THE INTER-TESTAMENTAL PERIOD. 400 Years of History in Ten Minutes. LIFE UNDER THE GREEKS. Alexander the Great dies in 323 BC His empire is divided among his general Israel is caught between Ptolemy in the south (Egypt) Seleucids in the north (Syria)

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The inter testamental period

THE INTER-TESTAMENTAL PERIOD

400 Years of History in Ten Minutes


Life under the greeks
LIFE UNDER THE GREEKS

  • Alexander the Great dies in 323 BC

  • His empire is divided among his general

  • Israel is caught between

    • Ptolemy in the south (Egypt)

    • Seleucids in the north (Syria)

  • Greek culture has powerful influence, leading to translation of OT into Greek

    • The Septuagint (LXX)


Life under the greeks1
LIFE UNDER THE GREEKS

  • 198 BC, the Seleucids defeated the Ptolemies and gained control of Judah, but not Egypt.

  • The Seleucids were determined to “civilize” the people of Judah.


Anitiochus iv
ANITIOCHUS IV

  • 175 B. C., Antiochus IV, Epiphanies(the illustrious one).

  • The Jews called him “Epimanes” (the madman).

  • Antiochus looked upon orthodox Judaism as an obstacle to the unification of his empire.


Anitiochus iv1
ANITIOCHUS IV

  • He looked upon the office of high priest as a political office.

    • A Benjaminite named Melanus pays money to become High Priest.

    • The orthodox Jews were infuriated.

  • Antiochus attacks Egypt.

    • Almost won, but was defeated by the Romans.


Anitiochus iv2
ANITIOCHUS IV

  • Antiochus takes his anger out on Israel.

    • He sent his army to attack the orthodox Jews on the Sabbath.

    • He decreed that Greek deities were to be worshipped.

    • He put a statue of Zeus in the Temple and sacrificed a pig on the altar.

    • He held drunken orgies to the god Bacchus and forced attendance.


Anitiochus iv3
ANITIOCHUS IV

  • Antiochus takes his anger out on Israel.

    • He forbid the Jews to practice circumcision on the threat of death.

    • The Sabbath was forbidden.

    • The observance of Jewish feasts was forbidden.

    • Copies of the Scriptures were burned.


The maccabees
THE MACCABEES

  • 165 BC, An aged priest, named Mattathias, was commanded to offer a sacrifice to Zeus at the town of Modin.

  • He refused and killed the next man who tried.

  • Together with his five sons, he destroyed the altar and ran for the hills.


The maccabees1
THE MACCABEES

  • For the next few years, they fought a guerrilla war against the Seleucids.

  • After having several killed on the Sabbath, when they would not fight, Mattathias decreed that fighting in self-defense on the Sabbath was allowed.


Judah the maccabee the hammer
JUDAH THE MACCABEE(the Hammer)

  • He continued the raids and guerrilla warfare.

  • Antiochus had battles in other parts of his kingdom and couldn’t focus on them.


Judah the maccabee the hammer1
JUDAH THE MACCABEE(the Hammer)

  • Eventually, the Maccabees took Jerusalem, entered the Temple and removed all signs of paganism that they found there.

    • They tore down the altar to Zeus and built a new altar to the Lord.

    • One day of oil burned for eight.

    • This is the Festival of Lights or “Hanukkah.”


Judah the maccabee the hammer2
JUDAH THE MACCABEE(the Hammer)

  • Judah’s victory was short-lived.

    • Antiochus sent his army against him, promising religious freedom if they surrendered.

    • The people chose to surrender and Judah ran away.

    • He did not stop fighting, however, and died in battle.


Jonathan judah s brother
JONATHAN, JUDAH’S BROTHER

  • Won by diplomacy.

  • Jonathan sought to become high priest, even though he was not of the right lineage.

  • The Syrians later murdered him.


Simon another brother
SIMON,ANOTHER BROTHER

  • Became both military commander and high priest.

  • Expelled the Syrians from the land.

  • The offices of priest, field commander, and ruler were all given to him by the people and made hereditary.

  • Began the Hasomanean dynasty.


The hasomanean dynasty
THE HASOMANEAN DYNASTY

  • The parties of the Pharisees and the Sadducees began

  • After about 75 years, the Hasomeaneans fell to fighting each other.

  • The Roman general, Pompey, offered to mediate.

    • He conquered the land and ended the arguments.

    • In 63 BC, Israel came under Roman domination.


The romans
THE ROMANS

  • Jews generally fared well; Romans gave a lot of independence

  • Still, longed for freedom

  • Herod the Great

    • Began ruling in 37 BC

    • Rebuilt several cities and six fortresses

    • In 20 BC, began building Temple; finished in 68 AD



Greco roman world
GRECO-ROMAN WORLD

  • Genuine belief in the gods and goddesses of Greece and Rome had given way to a general agnosticism.

  • Growth in superstition and astrology


Greco roman world philosophies
GRECO-ROMAN WORLDPhilosophies

  • Platonism

    • Taught that true reality is not found in the objects of sense, but in the idea or form which lies behind each object.

    • By grasping and participating in the eternal forms, the soul is lifted and attains true well-being.

    • The soul’s real home is the world beyond the senses.

    • The body is a prison for the soul.

    • This release takes place at death.


Greco roman world philosophies1
GRECO-ROMAN WORLDPhilosophies

  • Cynics

    • Believed “simple pleasures are the best” and taught an extreme frugality.

    • Salvation lies in returning to nature.

    • Cynics took their beliefs to the people.

    • Cynics’ style called the “diatribe” which consisted of questions and answers.


Greco roman world philosophies2
GRECO-ROMAN WORLDPhilosophies

  • Epicureans

    • Rejected Plato

    • How you feel should be the standard of truth.

    • Wisdom consists in the pursuit of happiness and enjoying life, but not to excess.

    • There is no afterlife, so you best enjoy life now while you can.

    • The gods, if they do exist, have nothing to do with us.

    • At death, the body dissolves.

    • This tended to bring about atheism and self-indulgence.


Greco roman world philosophies3
GRECO-ROMAN WORLDPhilosophies

  • Stoics

    • Encouraged the development of a moral fiber.

    • Divine Reason pervades the universe and it is our duty to live in accord with Reason.

    • Ethical living was very important to the Stoics.

    • Interpreted the Roman myths allegorically.

    • The soul is the divine spark of Reason trapped within the human body.

    • We have the ability to rise above our circumstances and face them with dignity.


Greco roman world mystery religions
GRECO-ROMAN WORLDMystery Religions

  • Most of these started in the east and were brought to Rome later.

  • Believed everyone worshiped the same god or gods, just used different names.

  • They are called “mystery religions” because the members were not supposed to tell non-members what was going on.

  • Generally, anyone could join.


Greco roman world mystery religions1
GRECO-ROMAN WORLDMystery Religions

  • Eleusians

    • Founded at the Eleusis a small town near Athens.

    • Based on the myth of Persephone and Pluto.

    • As she was searching for Persephone, Demeter came to Eleusis.

    • She was so well treated by the people that she initiated the king into the sacred mysteries.

    • The worshippers would re-enact the mythic story, thus brining the people into the reality of the tale.


Greco roman world mystery religions2
GRECO-ROMAN WORLDMystery Religions

  • Mithraism

    • We have more information on this group than just about any other cult.

    • Very popular among the military.

    • Restricted to men.


Greco roman world mystery religions3
GRECO-ROMAN WORLDMystery Religions

  • Mithraism

    • In the worship area, there was a statue of Mithra slaying a bull.

      • His left knee is astride the bull, which is forced to its knees.

      • His left hand pulls back the nose of the bull and the right hand plunges in a dagger.

      • From the wound comes three stalks of grain.

      • The picture is the light of Mithras in victory over the wild life of the bull.


Greco roman world mystery religions4
GRECO-ROMAN WORLDMystery Religions

  • Mithraism

    • Ethics were very important for this group.

    • There were seven degrees of membership, with costumes and head pieces for each level.

    • The final level was a baptism in the blood of a bull which was supposed to give eternal life.


Judaism and its divisions
JUDAISM AND ITS DIVISIONS

  • Synagogues

    • “Synagogue” means “meeting place”.

    • Not sure when they began, probably during the Babylonian Captivity.

    • The synagogues were places for the reading of Scripture and prayer.


Judaism and its divisions1
JUDAISM AND ITS DIVISIONS

  • Synagogues

    • There was a synagogue in virtually every village in Israel

    • One rule for the establishment of a synagogue: there had to be ten men.

    • Men and women sat in different sections of the building.

    • The “God-fearers” stood along the back wall.







Jewish messianic expectations1
JEWISH MESSIANIC EXPECTATIONS

  • The Spirit of God would return to-the covenant land.

  • God would send the Messiah to free His covenant people and the covenant land from the Romans

    • Of Davidic line

    • Man, not divine, but empowered by God's Spirit sad kept righteous

    • He would be righteous and just in His rule, serving as God's Messianic agent.


Jewish messianic expectations2
JEWISH MESSIANIC EXPECTATIONS

  • The Messiah's victory would be marked by Judgment

    • Non-Jews and all wicked Jews destroyed --Tax-collectors, prostitutes, other public sinners

    • The covenant people would be set free and empowered to live totally as God’s people.


Jewish messianic expectations3
JEWISH MESSIANIC EXPECTATIONS

  • An age of "heaven on earth"

    • Imagery of the year of Jubilee

    • An abundance of food with little work and toil

    • No more sorrow, sickness and death

    • No more oppression ant unrighteousness

    • Non-Jews would, sometime in the future, stream to Jerusalem to become part of the covenant people.

    • The coming of a "new heaven and a new earth"


The synoptic problem q and source theory other critical theories

THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEMQ AND SOURCE THEORYOTHER CRITICAL THEORIES


The synoptic problem
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM

  • What is the relationship among the three Synoptic Gospels?

    • The Synoptic Gospels are Matthew, Mark and Luke

  • A historical question, does not necessarily impinge upon authorship and inspiration.


The synoptic problem1
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM

  • That there is a relationship is obvious

    • The general scheme of the three Gospels is the same.

    • Not only do Jesus’ words match, but also the narrative events.


The synoptic problem2
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM

  • Where there is a difference

    • Matthew and Mark agree the most often.

    • Sometimes Luke and Mark agree.

    • Rarely, Matthew and Luke agree.


The synoptic problem3
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM

  • There are passages that Matthew and Luke have that Mark does not.

  • Some stuff in Matthew and Luke is similar, but not identical.

  • Each Gospel has its own material.


The synoptic problem4
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM

  • What is the relationship?

  • St. Augustine

    • Matthew wrote first.

    • Luke used Matthew.

    • Mark wrote a Reader’s Digest version of them.


The synoptic problem5
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM

  • Early Church

    • Matthew wrote first.

    • Mark wrote his Gospel independently, using Peter as his source.

    • Luke used Matthew to write his Gospel.


The synoptic problem6
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM

  • Current Scholarship

    • Mark was the first Gospel written.

    • Matthew and Luke used Mark and an unknown source called “Q.”

      • From the German Quelle meaning “source.”


The synoptic problem7
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM

  • Why do scholars think that Mark is the first Gospel?

    • The amount of Mark found in the other Gospels.

    • Generally, Mark’s order of events used.

      • Sometimes, Matthew and Mark have a different order than Luke.

      • Sometimes Luke and Mark differ from Matthew.

      • But Matthew and Luke never differ from Mark.

    • Historical candor

    • Style


The synoptic problem8
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM

  • Biggest problem with Markan priority

    • Early church witness states that Matthew was the first Gospel written.

    • There is no external evidence to back up this claim.

    • Still, most scholars think this scheme answers more questions that it gives.


Q and source theory
Q AND SOURCE THEORY

  • Q = Information that is common to Luke and Matthew, but not in Mark

    • About 250 verses, mostly sayings with very little narrative material s.

    • Eusebius quotes a man named Papias who wrote early in the second century.

    • Papias states that Matthew wrote down the “logia” (sayings, oracles) of Jesus in the “Hebrew dialect.”

    • Many think that this might have been a type of Q document.


Q and source theory1
Q AND SOURCE THEORY

  • Except for the temptation of Jesus, most of this material is in different locations in each Gospel.

  • This means one of two things:

    • Jesus taught the same thing more than once

    • That one or the other edited the material and put it where he wanted.

    • Most scholars think Luke has the “original” order.


Q and source theory2
Q AND SOURCE THEORY

  • Q Problems

    • There is no hard evidence of its existence.

    • There is absolutely no parallel type of literature in that era.


Q and source theory3
Q AND SOURCE THEORY

  • Q Problems

    • Q had no passion account.

    • Scholars have come up with no less that 18 different possibilities of what was in Q.

    • Some of the stuff in Q strikes me as two different parables or something that Jesus would have taught more than once.


Q and source theory4
Q AND SOURCE THEORY

  • What Do We Do With All This?

    • This is a historical question and does not necessarily impinge on authorship or inspiration.

    • We know that Luke, at least, used sources.

    • A good argument can be made for putting Mark first.

    • Q is a open question.


Other critical theories
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES

  • Form Criticism

    • Definition: The task of inferring what the oral tradition of Jesus was like before it was written down.


Other critical theories1
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES

  • Form Critics identify five types of literature

  • Paradigms

    • A story that ends with an important saying.

    • Plucking ears on the Sabbath.

  • Tales (Miracle stories)

    • These have no important sayings and tend to show Jesus as a miracle worker.

    • The stilling of the storm.


Other critical theories2
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES

  • Sayings

    • Not attached to a narrative.

    • The Sermon on the Mount and the parables.

  • Legends

    • Poor choice of words.

    • The idea was an extraordinary story about a holy person.

    • The infancy narratives.


Other critical theories3
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES

  • Myths

    • Another poor choice of words.

    • Times when Jesus and God interacted.

    • The transfiguration.


Other critical theories4
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES

  • Positives of Form Criticism

    • The Form Critics help bring attention to the preaching and teaching character of the Gospels.


Other critical theories5
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES

  • Negatives of Form Criticism

    • Biggest problem: the presuppositions which the critics use.

      • Began with the belief that the Church either modified or totally made up the words and actions of Jesus.

      • The Gospels tell us more about the life situation of the early church than they do about Jesus.

      • They divided the “Jesus of history” from the “Christ of faith.”


Other critical theories6
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES

  • Negatives of Form Criticism

    • Biggest problem: the presuppositions which the critics use.

      • The Gospels have layers: geographical notations, dating, miracles, and doctrinal elements were all added by the later church.

        • Critics argue that we need to strip the layers from Gospels to get to the “real Jesus” and “the real words of Jesus.”

        • This lead to the so-called “search for the historical Jesus.”

        • When the search for Jesus is stripped away, you are left with someone who looks much like you do.


Other critical theories7
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES

  • Negatives of Form Criticism

    • The uncertainty of exact classification

      • Often arbitrary in selection of forms: paradigms, tales, sayings, legends, myths

      • All interest in the person and life of Christ are ruled out

    • The "community myth"

      • Contradicts all we know about primitive communities

      • Rules out the influence of Christ and of the apostles on the community

      • The Good News produced the community, not vice versa


Other critical theories8
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES

  • Negativesof Form Criticism

    • The folk-lore analogy is dubious

      • A little more or less than a generation separates Mark from the event

      • Ignores the memory of men who were eyewitnesses

      • Neglects the tradition of Jesus' actual words

      • Makes insufficient allowance for the existence of an authentic tradition of Christ's words, e.g. 1 Cor. 7:10, 12, 25; 15:3 - 11


Other critical theories9
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES

  • Negativesof Form Criticism

    • Ignores the way people learned

      • Memorization—the only way to preserve a statement or text and the Jews were very tenacious about it.

        • The Rabbis spoke tersely and incisively. The avoided wordy talk; they expressed themselves in concise terms.

        • There were poetic devices: alliteration, parable, rhythmic phrases, etc.

      • Repetition—which would answer why the same stuff shows up in more than one gospel in a different location, Jesus was repeating himself.

      • Recitation


Other critical theories10
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES

  • Negativesof Form Criticism

    • Overstepped the legitimate limits of their method

      • Went from form, speculative in itself, to content

      • Over-ruled or ignored literary and historical truths

    • If the main contention of form criticism were true, then the burning issues of the early church would be reflected in the Gospels, e. g.

      • The problem of integrating the non-Jew into the Christian community;

      • Speaking in tongues.


Other critical theories11
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES

  • Redaction Criticism

    • Why the material is arranged the way it is

    • Overall, pretty positive

    • However, comes from form-critical school with its problems.

    • Tends to see a theological motive where others might night.



The birth of jesus
THE BIRTH OF JESUS

  • When was Jesus born?

    • Herod the Great died in 4 BC

    • There was an imperial census in 8 BC.


The birth of jesus1
THE BIRTH OF JESUS

  • The Problem of Quinirius.

    • Quinirius was governor around 6 AD, which is too late for the birth of Jesus.

    • There are three possible answers:

      • Luke is in error here.

      • Luke has been mistranslated.

        • “First” should be translated “before”

        • “Governor” should be translated “governing”

      • Luke doesn’t give the whole story.

        • Started under Herod

        • Completed under Quinirius


The birth of jesus2
THE BIRTH OF JESUS

  • The Genealogies

  • Two suggestions:

    • Matthew is highlighting Joseph’s heritage; Luke is highlighting Mary’s.

      • But both say they are Joseph’s heritage.

      • If Mary, Jesus would be considered illegtimate.

    • Joseph is the product of a Levirite marriage.


Jesus ministry
JESUS’ MINISTRY

  • PARABLES

    • One third of Jesus’ teaching was done in parables.

    • The parables describe the Kingdom of God in action.

    • There are 3 kinds of parables:

      • A simple saying

      • A comparison

      • Allegories

    • A parable has only one main point of comparison


Jesus ministry1
JESUS’ MINISTRY

  • MIRACLES

    • Jesus’ miracles are well-attested to.

    • Josephus calls Jesus a “doer of wonderful deeds.”

    • Babylonian Talmud accuses Jesus of sorcery.


Jesus ministry2
JESUS’ MINISTRY

  • MIRACLES

    • Miracles were part of Jesus’ message.

      • Jesus’ Mission statement: Luke 4.

      • The Kingdom of God had come to set people free from:

        • Sickness

        • Demons

        • Evils of nature

        • Death

    • The key to understanding the miracles was faith: realizing that the miracles were the kingdom of God at work.


The passion and resurrection
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION

  • The Last Supper

    • Did Jesus celebrate the Passover?

      • Synoptics: Most definitely yes!


The passion and resurrection1
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION

  • Did Jesus celebrate the Passover?

    • John: Well, maybe not… John 18:28, 19:14

      • John uses the word “Passover” in a wide sense Passover and the “Feast of the Unleavened Bread

      • Friday was normally called “Preparation Day” meaning “Preparation for the Sabbath.”


The passion and resurrection2
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION

  • Did Jesus celebrate the Passover?

    • John: Well, maybe not… John 18:28, 19:14

      • Saying this was “Preparation for the Passover” could mean “Friday in Passover Week.”

      • There were other important meals during Passover week that might be what John is referring to.

      • There is some discussion as to whether or not all the Jews used the same calendar


The passion and resurrection3
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION

  • THE LAST SUPPER

    • The Order of the Meal

      • First cup of wine (Luke 22:15-18) At this time, Jesus would have spoken the blessing over the wine.

        • The footwashing (John 13:1-20)

        • “One of you will betray me” (Luke 22:22; Matthew 26:23-24)

        • Washing the right hand was followed by preliminary dish.

        • It consisted of herbs that were dipped in sauce.


The passion and resurrection4
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION

  • THE LAST SUPPER

    • The Order of the Meal

      • First cup of wine (Luke 22:15-18) At this time, Jesus would have spoken the blessing over the wine.

        • Jesus says that the betrayer would be one who dipped his hand into the dish with me.

        • John asks Jesus who the betrayer was.

        • Jesus says it is the person he gives a dipped portion to: Judas.


The passion and resurrection5
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION

  • THE LAST SUPPER

    • The Order of the Meal

      • First cup of wine (Luke 22:15-18) At this time, Jesus would have spoken the blessing over the wine.

        • Judas leaves.

        • “All of you will leave me.” Matthew 26:31-35; Mark 14:27-31; Luke 22:31-38; John 13:31-38


The passion and resurrection6
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION

  • The Main Part of the Meal

    • After the preliminary dish, the second cup of wine was distributed.

    • The meal was put on the table.

    • The youngest would ask, “Why do we eat this meal?” and the father of the family would respond with the Passover story.

    • This was followed by singing some of the Hallel Psalms (Psalms 111-118).

    • The second cup of wine was then drank and both hands would be washed.


The passion and resurrection7
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION

  • The Third Cup, the Cup o Blessing or Thanksgiving (Eucharist).

    • It was at this point that Jesus instituted the Lord’s Supper.

  • Finally, after the meal, Jesus had his great discourse in John.


The passion and resurrection8
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION

  • PONTIUS PILATE

    • Pilate served from 26 to 36 AD.

    • There were three major incidents before the trial of Jesus (RAGS):

      • Roman Standards

      • Aqueduct

      • Golden Shields

    • When the Jews protested, they basically threatened Pilate.

      • Tiberius was not well.

      • Pilate would have faced exile or suicide.


The passion and resurrection9
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION

  • Crucifixion

    • There were two types of crosses: T and Latin cross

    • The cross beam was carried by the accused; it weighed about 100 lbs.

    • A superscription given the reason for the crucifixion was either put above the head or around the neck.

    • A wooden seat was positioned about half way up.

    • A piece of wood was used to help the body stay on the cross.

    • Death was caused by suffocation.


The passion and resurrection10
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION

  • If Jesus Didn’t Rise, then What happened?

    • The “stolen body” theory

    • The “wrong tomb” theory

    • The “swoon” theory

    • The “hallucination” theory


The passion and resurrection11
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION

  • Evidence in Scripture for the resurrection:

    • The women

    • Early church preaching

    • The Gospels vary in their accounts

    • The disciples

    • Paul


The passion and resurrection12
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION

  • What did the Resurrection mean?

    • That Jesus is the Son of God.

    • That God accepted Jesus’ sacrifice for us.

    • That we live a new, forgiven life.

    • That we will rise again.



The gospels
THE GOSPELS

  • The Gospels are not biographies as we would normally understand that term.

  • The purpose of the Gospels is to present Jesus to the readers.


Matthew
MATTHEW

  • Author: Matthew, the apostle

    • Attested to throughout church history

    • Best argument against it: Why would rely so heavily on Mark’s Gospel?

      • This is an assumption.

      • He could have read Mark’s Gospel and then decided to incorporate it to show apostolic unity.

    • If Matthew not the author, then you have to show why church tradition is wrong.


Matthew1
MATTHEW

  • Place of writing: Somewhere in Palestine

  • Written to Jewish Christians

  • Date of writing: Depends on presuppositions. Probably around as 50-60 AD.


Matthew2
MATTHEW

  • Key Themes

    • Messianic interest

      • Jesus is the new Moses

      • Structure:

        • Birth and Infancy of Jesus (1-2)

        • Book 1—The Kingdom of Heaven is Announced

          • Narrative (Galilean ministry; 3-4)

          • Teaching (Sermon the Mount; 5-7)

        • Book 2—The Kingdom of Heaven is Preached

          • Narrative (8:1-9:34)

          • Teaching (9:35-11:1)


Matthew3
MATTHEW

  • Key Themes

    • Messianic interest

      • Jesus is the new Moses

      • Structure:

        • Book 3—The Mystery of the Kingdom of Heaven

          • Narrative (11:2-12)

          • Teaching (parables) (13:1-52)

        • Book 4—The Church as the Kingdom of Heaven

          • Narrative (13:53-17)

          • Teaching (18)


Matthew4
MATTHEW

  • Key Themes

    • Messianic interest

      • Jesus is the new Moses

      • Structure:

        • Book 5—The Advent of the Kingdom of Heaven

          • Narrative (19-22)

          • Teaching (23-26)

        • The Passion and Resurrection (26-28)


Matthew5
MATTHEW

  • Key Themes

    • Jesus is the fulfiller of prophecy

      • His passages sometimes bring questions

    • Jew first, then the Gentile

    • The Church

      • Only Gospel writer to use the word “Church”

    • Eschatology (end times)


MARK

  • Author: John Mark

    • Papias states that he wrote from Rome with Peter as his source.

    • Is he the naked guy?

  • Date: 50 to 60 AD

  • Written to Roman Christians


MARK

  • Key themes:

    • Jesus as a busy man

    • Gospel for gentiles

    • Blunt view of people

  • Textual question: The ending of Mark


LUKE

  • Author: Luke, a doctor and companion of Paul’s

    • Author of both Luke and Acts

    • Both dedicated to same man

    • Only Gentile author in the NT

    • Some wonder if there is medical language or interests in his Gospel


LUKE

  • Date: 60-65 AD ?

  • Written to Theophilus

    • “Most Excellent” a social rank

    • Strong catechetical emphasis


LUKE

  • Themes in Luke:

    • Universality of the Gospel—Gentiles and women are prominent

    • Prayer

    • Holy Spirit


JOHN

  • Author: John the apostle.

    • John Drane: “The question of authorship has always been rather confused.”

    • No, it has not.


JOHN

  • Author: John the apostle.

    • Early Church evidence

      • Irenaenus states that Polycarp, who was a student of John’s, said that he was the author of this Gospel and that it was written in Ephesus.

      • “The Elder John”

        • This comes from Papias, once again quoted in Eusebius.

        • Would the early church would give a Gospel to man of whom nothing was really known?

        • Eusebius mentions the Elder John is to get away from the idea that Revelation was written by the apostle.


JOHN

  • Author: John the apostle.

    • Internal evidence

      • Gives great deal of geographical detail

      • Author claims to be an eyewitness

      • John, son of Zebedee, is never named.

      • There is the “disciple whom Jesus loved.”

        • This disciple is one of the 12

        • Close connection with Peter

        • Given care of Jesus’ mother


JOHN

  • Date: Around 85-100 AD.

  • Purpose: John 20:30-31

  • Themes:

    • Emphasis on the Old Testament

    • The Sprit

    • Love, truth, light, life, and abiding are all abstract themes that keep coming up.


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