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Dr. Turgut Tumer Professor, Middle East Technical University, Turkey. Former Associate Vice President, TUBITAK Turkey Vision 2023 Several Research & Industrial Projects MSc and PhD, UK . MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY .

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Dr. Turgut TumerProfessor,Middle East Technical University,Turkey


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  • Former Associate Vice President, TUBITAK

    • Turkey Vision 2023

  • Several Research & Industrial Projects

  • MSc and PhD, UK


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MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY OF TURKEYpast, present and the future

Turgut Tümer

METU, Dept. of Mech. Eng.

tumer@metu.edu.tr

Innovation and Competitiveness Practitioners Workshop

19 April 2004

Istanbul

The

World Bank


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Presentation Plan

  • Milestones of the Turkish S&T policy

  • Present S&T system of Turkey and indicators

  • Where is Turkey now?

  • What is missing?

  • Planning for the future: Vision 2023 Project


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Milestones in S&T Policy of Turkey

  • 1963:Basic research; Establishment of TÜBİTAK

  • 1972:Strategic research;Marmara Research Center (TÜBİTAK-MAM)

  • 1973:Technology development in five-year plan

  • 1983:Comprehensive S&T policies: 1983-2003; Establishment of Supreme Council for S&T (SCST)

  • 1993:Revised S&T Policies:1993-2003; Priority areas, National Innovation System

  • 1995:Industrial S&T support programme


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S&T System of Turkey (1/8)

Institutional framework

  • SCST / TÜBİTAK (main actor)

  • Universities / Public Research Institutes / Firms

  • State Planning Organisation

  • KOSGEB (SME Org.)

  • TTGV (Tech. Dev. Found.)

  • Turkish Patent Institute (TRIPS)

  • National Metrology Institute (TÜBİTAK)

  • Accreditation Board

  • Technology Development Regions –Technoparks


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S&T System of Turkey (2/8)

SCST in 1989-2003

  • 1989

    Inaugural meeting

  • 1993

    Priority Areas of S&T / Industrial R&DSupport Program

  • 1997-2003

    Significant developments / action plans / implementations


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S&T System of Turkey (3/8)

SCST 1993 Policy Approach

Strategic choice to acquire capabilities in science and technology,

  • not only to achieve excellence in scientific and technological research,

  • but also to turn scientific and technological findings into economical and/or social benefits.

    Hence, the present S&T Policy of Turkey is based on the establishment of a

    National Innovation System


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S&T System of Turkey (4/8)

Current Priority Areas of S&T

  • Information and communication

  • Flexible manufacturing and automation

  • Transportation (with particular interest in rail transport)

  • Aeronautics, space and defence

  • Genetic engineering and biotechnology (with particular emphasis on agricultural applications in relation with the “South-Western Anatolian Project-GAP)

  • Environment friendly technologies and renewable energy systems

  • Eartquake related problems and disaster management


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S&T System of Turkey (5/8)

  • TÜBİTAK

  • S&T policy formulation (Secretariat of SCST)

  • Academic R&D support (8 Grant Committees)

  • Industrial R&D support (TİDEB)

  • R&D manpower development

  • Popularisation of science (Books, magazines, journals)

  • International relations

  • In-house research (11 research institutes)

  • R&D support services (ULAKBİM, UME, labs.)


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S&T System of Turkey (6/8)

  • 71 Universities

    • 1.900.00 students

      • 1.100.000 undergraduates

      • 110.000 graduates (of which 25.000 Ph.D)

      • 240.000 open university

      • 400.000 vocational training

    • 76.000 academic staff

      • 10.000 Professors

      • 5.500 Associate Professors

      • 12.500 Assistant Professors

  • 150 public R&D institutions

    • mostly agriculture, forestry, veterinary

    • 11 research institutes of TUBITAK

  • 1000 firms involved in R&D activities (%75 SMEs)


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S&T System of Turkey (7/8)

  • 100 M USD/year (excluding personnel)

    • SPO: 40% (Adv.Res.Proj.)

    • Ministry of Finance: 40% (Sci. Res. Proj.)

    • TÜBİTAK: 6 % (8 Grant Comm.)

    • Other (KOSGEB, ...): 14%

Public Funds for Academic Research


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S&T System of Turkey (8/8)

Industrial R&D Support

  • TÜBİTAK (Grant to the budget)

    $157 million has been granted since 1995 for 959 projects

  • TTGV (Soft loan)

    $130 million has been loaned since 1991 to 351 projects

  • KOSGEB (various)


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S&T Indicators

Outcome in ten years

  • Scientific publications

    41(90):117725(00):607422(02):9303

  • GERD in % of GDP

    %0.32(90)%0.64(00)

  • R&D realised by business enterprise

    %20.4(90)%33.4(00)

  • R&D financed by business enterprise

    %27.5(90) %42.9(00)

  • R&D personnel intensity per 10,000 labour force

    7.5(90)13.1(00)


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Where are we now?

Turkey on the Globe

  • Demography: 1.1 %

  • GDP (Wealth): 0.6 %

  • S&T (Knowledge): 0.9 %

    Turkey in the EU-13 Candidates

  • Demography: 37 %

  • GDP (Wealth): 21 %

  • S&T (Knowledge): 23 %

One of the opportunities for Turkey is to create economic and social value added by utilizing knowledge through technology development...


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What is missing?

  • Long term, strategic perspective

  • Public awareness / Community support

  • Committment of the Governments

  • Drive for innovation in industry

  • An integrated, well structured Turkish Research Area

  • Missing elements and harmonious operation of the National Innovation System


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Arıkan, Akyos, Durgut, Göker, “NIS”, TÜSİAD Pub., 2003

Missing elements of the NIS

  • Independent assessment institutions

  • National R&D programmes in specific areas

  • Diversified R&D support instruments

  • Innovation Relay Centres

  • Regional innovation systems

  • National information infrastructure

  • Mobility of researchers

  • Speciliased technology service providers

  • Seed capital, start-up support

  • Venture Capital (investment, management)

  • Public procrument, Off-sets


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VISION 2023

PROJECT

EUROPEAN UNION

SIXTH FRAMEWORK

PROGRAM

USING S&T AS A LEVERAGE

FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC

DEVELOPMENT

Planning for the future

Two major steps in 2002towards planning for the future


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Vision 2023 Project

Decision of the

Supreme Council of

Science and Technology (SCST)

A new national S&T policy document for the period 2003-2023 is to be prepared to build a welfare society

in 2023: 100’th Anniversary of the Foundation of the

Turkish Republic


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TECHNOLOGICAL CAPACITY

TECHNOLOGY FORESIGHT

R&D MANPOWER

R&D INFRASTRUCTURE

  • 2003-2023 STRATEGY DOCUMENT

  • S&T Vision

  • Strategic Technologies and R&D Priorities

  • Policy Recommendations

Vision 2023 Project

Period: Jan. 2002 - 2004


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Turkish Technology Foresight Project - Organisation

Steering Committee:

  • 27 Public (Co-ordination: TUBITAK)

  • 29 NGO’s and Chambers

  • 9 Universities

    Total of 65 bodies represented by high ranking officials and managers


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Turkish Technology Foresight Project - Methodology

  • Panels

    • 10 sectoral, 2 thematic panels

    • Over 200 meetings in one year

  • Delphi Survey

    • 413 statements and 20 questions in 11 areas

    • Reached 7000 experts / general anouncements

    • Return rate (first round): 34%

    • 44.000 statements: 105 response/statement

(Technology Demand)

(Technology Supply)


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Current state of the project

  • 11 Panels have come up with 95 "Technological Activity Area - TAA", by utilising the results of the Delphi survey.

  • A road map was prepared for each TAA, which includes the list of "Technology Fields - TF" needed.

  • Prioritisation of the technology fields in progress.

  • Synthesis reports (4 volumes) to appear soon.

  • Strategy Document to be submitted to SCST in autumn 2004.


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MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

Thank you

for your attention


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