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Schizophrenia. www.psychlotron.org.uk. Clinical description Biological explanations Psychological explanations. Schizophrenia. www.psychlotron.org.uk. Schizophrenia is not a multiple personality A psychotic disorder involving a break with reality

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schizophrenia
Schizophrenia

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Clinical description
  • Biological explanations
  • Psychological explanations
schizophrenia2
Schizophrenia

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Schizophrenia is not a multiple personality
  • A psychotic disorder involving a break with reality
  • Many different manifestations with a few shared features
schizophrenia diagnosis
Schizophrenia diagnosis

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • At least two of the following:
    • Hallucinations (us. auditory or somatic)
    • Delusions (oft. linked to hallucinations)
    • Disorganised speech
    • Disorganised or catatonic behaviour
    • Negative symptoms
  • Social & occupational dysfunction
  • Duration of several months
schizophrenia diagnosis4
Schizophrenia diagnosis

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Diagnostic subtypes
    • Paranoid
    • Catatonic
    • Disorganised
    • Undifferentiated
  • Type 1 - Episodic, mainly positive symptoms
  • Type 2 - Chronic, mainly negative symptoms
schizophrenia prevalence
Schizophrenia prevalence

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • 1% lifetime risk in general population
  • Holds true for most geographical areas although rates do vary
    • Abnormally high in Southern Ireland, Croatia; significantly lower rates in Italy, Spain (Torrey, 2002)
  • Risk factors include low SES, minority ethnicity, urban residence
schizophrenia onset
Schizophrenia onset

www.psychlotron.org.uk

Source: CIHI (2001)

schizophrenia prognosis
Schizophrenia prognosis

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • ‘Rule of the thirds’ (rule of thumb):
    • 1/3 recover more or less completely
    • 1/3 episodic impairment
    • 1/3 chronic decline
  • Confirmed in US & UK (Stevens, 1978)
  • With treatment about 60% of patients manage a relatively normal life
  • Prognosis better in non-industrialised societies
schizophrenia explanations
Schizophrenia explanations

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Biological
    • Genetics
    • Neurochemicals & hormones
    • Structural brain abnormalities
  • Psychological
    • Family dynamics
    • Life stress
    • Urbanicity
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