RECOGNITION and ENFORCEMENT in CIVIL and COMMERCIAL MATTERS. A.A.H. van Hoek 2003. OUTLINE. Background and content of the Brussels I Regulation Conditions for recognition and enforcement Effects of and problems with of recognition and enforcement. REGULATION 44/2001 IN CONTEXT.
A.A.H. van Hoek 2003
Article 220 EEC-Treaty (293 ECT)
The member states shall, so far as necessary, enter into negotiations with each other with a view to securing for the benefit of their nationals.…. The simplification of formalities governing the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of courts or tribunals and of arbitral awards.
1988: EC Member States + EFTA Member States: Austria, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Switzerland
1997: Austria, Sweden, Finland accede to Brussels I
2002: Poland accedes to Lugano
domicile of defendant
choice of forum
No ex officio refusal of exequatur!