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Access by Affected Country Parties to Technology, Knowledge and Know-How Case Study of Israel PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Access by Affected Country Parties to Technology, Knowledge and Know-How Case Study of Israel. Presented to the Committee for the Review of the Implementation of the Convention (CRIC1) Rome, Italy, 13 November 2002 Prepared by Blaustein Institute for Desert Research Sede Boqer Campus

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Access by Affected Country Parties to Technology, Knowledge and Know-How Case Study of Israel

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Access by Affected Country Parties

to Technology, Knowledge and Know-How

Case Study of Israel

Presented to the

Committee for the Review

of the Implementation of the Convention (CRIC1)

Rome, Italy, 13 November 2002

Prepared by

Blaustein Institute for Desert Research

Sede Boqer Campus

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

for the

 Department of International Organizations

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, State of Israel

1 November 2002


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700

Dry subhumid

500

300

Semi arid

100

Arid

Hyper arid

50

Israel’s practices for

combating desertification

40 km

1. Study the natural potential of your country’s ecosystems

N

Mediterranean

scrublands

32o

Israel has different types of dryland ecosystems

Their sensitivity to desertification increases with their aridity

Asian steppes

Sahara-Arabian

deserts

2. Gain experience in combating desertification by developing less sensitive dryland first

30o

22,145 km2


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3. Major experience gained from exploring agriculture dependent on low quality and unpredictably variable quantities of local water resources – sustainability of dryland agricultural development requires transported water of high quality and stable quantities

30% of Israel water pumped from a lake managed as operational reservoir from –220 m b.s.l. to 150 m a.s.l. and transported along 300 km; these large quantities of high quality water enable:

Rangeland

Cropland

Year-round irrigation

Year-round cover

Leaching

No soil erosion

No salinization


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4. Coupling water transportation with water conservation - increase water use efficiency

  • Reduces:

  • evaporation losses

  • fertilizer use

  • herbicide use

  • risks of salt damage

  • health risks of wastewater

Irrigation practices

Surface 45%

Sprinklers 75%

Drip 95%

M3/hectare/year

Productivity

Increase x 20


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5. Rather than fight the desert curses, uncover and exploit the desert’s blessings, for making dryland products competitive

  • Curse to blessing:

  • Solar radiation –

    • much light

    • warm winters

  • Fossil water, brackish

  • Used for:

  • Cash crops

    • Fruits & vegetables

    • Ornamental

    • Spices

  • Aquaculture

    • Fish

    • Algae

    • Shrimps

  • Benefits:

  • Low water use

  • Low pesticide use

  • Low land use

  • CO2fertilization

Contributors to productivity:

Agrotechnology, Mechanization,

Research, Extension …………….. 96%

Land and Water ………………… 4%

Protected Dryland Agriculture - Greenhouses


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200

150 mm

6. Dryland-adapted afforestation of rangelands (“Savannization”) is a multi-purpose tool for combating desertification

Runoff harvesting –

additional 35%

of annual rainfall


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Afforestation (not reforestation) of a semi-arid dryland


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7. “Savannization” promotes pastoralism and tourism

Water-harvesting landscaping

Planted trees

Soil conservation

Flood control

Firewood production

Increased soil moisture

Recreation & ecotourism

Promoted biodiversity

Higher forage quality

Fire management by controlled grazing


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8. Synergies between afforestation and agriculture

  • Protected agriculture

  • Afforestation

  • combined

  • Save water

  • Generate new water

  • Afforestation

  • Irrigated agriculture

  • In the semi-arid region

reduced surface reflectance

10-25% increase in diurnal rains


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9. Re-use of wastewater and combating desertification

  • In Dry subhumid

  • Population Growth

  • Increased standard of life

Increase water demand

for domestic use

Urban sprawl

Less land

Less water

Dry subhumid agriculture

More wastewater

110Mm3

360Mm3

Mediterranean

Pollution

(Barcelona Convention)

Semiarid agriculture

Orchards

Treatment

250Mm3

Salinization risk

?

Sludge


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10. Use of sludge – experimental application to semi-arid wheat fields

  • Increase in yield – 34-38%

  • Increase in soil concentration of nutrients

  • Increase in soil concentration of heavy metals

11.Cooperate with neighboring countries on common standards for re-use of treated wastewater and application of sludge, to promote future export and import of dryland agricultural products

October 2002 meeting of Israel, PA, Jordan, Egypt and Tunisia in Grenada, Spain, on these standards (under the project “Regional Initiative for Dryland Management”)


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