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Island evolution. Evolutionary forces on islands Evolutionary trends on islands. Morphology. Gigantism and nanism Loss of dispersal abilities. Pringleophaga marioni, Marion Island. Lepidoptera: Tineidae. Paractora dreuxi, Marion Island. Diptera: Helcomyzidae.

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Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Gigantism and nanism

Loss of dispersal abilities


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Pringleophaga marioni, Marion Island

Lepidoptera: Tineidae

Paractora dreuxi, Marion Island

Diptera: Helcomyzidae


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Galapaganus, Galapagos Islands

Sequiera et al. 2000


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7.2 Mya

winged/apterous

mainland/island

Naupactus xanthographus

Naupactus verecundus

Naupactus dissimulator

Galapaganus howdenae

Galapaganus galapagoensis

Galapaganus caroli

Galapaganus vandykei

Galapaganus collaris

Galapaganus conwayensis

Galapaganus ashlocki

Sequiera et al. 2000


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Coleoptera

80

Orthoptera

60

Diptera

ArcSine-transformed % flightless

(mainland areas)

40

Hemiptera

20

0

Thysanoptera

0

20

40

60

80

ArcSine-transformed % flightless

(oceanic islands)

Psocoptera

Roff 1990

Neuroptera


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Sphenisciformes 18/18 1

Struthioniformes 15/15 1

Gruiformes 17/122 17

nr of species

flightless/total

nr of

transitions


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Porzana sandwichiensis (+?1884), Hawaii Islands

Porzana monasa (+1828), Kosrae Island

Porzana atra, Henderson Island

Porzana palmeri (+1920, 1948), Laysan Island


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125 000 y

Amauornis akoof

Amauornis favirostris

Porzana monasa

Porzana tabuensis

Porzana atra

Porzana sandwichensis

Amauornis bicolor

Amauornis olivieri

Porzana palmeri

Porzana pusilla

Porzana parva

Porzana fusca

Porzana paykullii

Porzana carolina

Porzana fluminea

Porzana porzana

Anurolimnas fasciatus

Poliolimnas flaviventer

Slikas et al. 2002


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Kagu,Rhynochetos jubatus, New Caledonia


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Rodriguez solitaire, Pezophaps solitaria, Rodriguez

Dodo, Raphus cucullatus, Mauritius


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Kakapo, Strigops habroptilus, New Zealand


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Anas chlorotis, New Zealand

Anas nesiotis, Campbell Islands

Anas aucklandia, Auckland Islands


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Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo

Flightless cormorant, Phalacrocorax harrisi, Galapagos


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1cm

mandibles

Apteribis, Hawaii Islands (+)


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Chelychelynechen quassus

Thambetochen xanion

Ptaiochen pau

Anas wyviliana

Thambetochen chauliodous

Kauai

Molokai

Oahu

Maui

Lanai

Hawaii

moa-nalo (+), Hawaiian Islands

Sorensen et al. 1999


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number of evolutionary transitions

number of flightless species

total number of species

Ostriches Struthionidae 1 1 1 Africa

Rheas Rheidae 2 2 South America

Cassowaries Casuariidae 4 4 Australia, New Guinea

Kiwis Apterygidae 3 3 New Zealand

Emus Dromaiidae 1 1 Australia

Moas Dinornithidae 13 13 New Zealand

Dromornithidae 8 8 Australia

Elephant birds Aepyornithidae 9 9 Madagascar

Dodos Raphidae 2 2 2 Mascarene Islands

Rails Rallidae 17 17 122 Various islands

Kagus Rhynochetidae 1 1 1 New Caledonia

Parrots Psittacidae 1 1 358 New Zealand

Ibises Plataleidae 3? ? ? Hawaii

Penguins Spheniscidae 18 1 18 Southern hemisphere

Cormorants Phalacrocoracidae 1 1 37 Galapagos Islands

Grebes Podicipedidae 3 3 21 South America

Murres Alcidae 1 1 23 Atlantic Ocean

Ducks Anatidae 4 2 148 Various coastlines


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"There is a very curious point in the astounding proportion of Coleoptera that are apterous; & I think I have grasped the reason, viz that powers of

flight wd be injurious to insects inhabiting a confined locality & expose them to be blown to the sea"

Darwin, 1855

natural selection

for energy re-allocation

random drift

not countered

by selection

Loss of dispersal abilities

ecological release

(lack of predators)


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Gavidae

Phasantidae

2.0

Log winglength (cm)

1.0

Bird families

No flightless species

Contains flightless species

0

0

1

2

3

4

Log body mass (g)

McCall et al. 1998


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Broom stick, Bidens pilosa, Tropics

Bog Beggarticks, Bidens conjuncta, Hawaii Islands


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pappus

achene

Lactuca muralis, Vancouver Island

Cody & Overton 1996


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2.0

2000

1500

Volume pappus / Volume achenes

1000

500

0

mainland

1-4

5-7

8-9

10+

Age (years)

Lactuca muralis, Vancouver Island

Cody & Overton 1996


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Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Gigantism and nanism

Loss of dispersal abilities

Development of woodiness


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Cabbage tree, Dendroseris litoralis, Juan Fernandez Islands


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Sow Thistle, Sonchus fruticosus, Madeira


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Narrowleaf plantain, Plantago lanceolata, Eurasia

Plantago princeps, Hawaii


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Competition hypothesis

growing taller is advantageous

Longevity hypothesis

woodiness allows extended lifespans,

increases chance of sexual reproduction

Climate hypothesis

islands have milder and

moister climates

Development of woodiness


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Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Gigantism and nanism

Loss of dispersal abilities

Development of woodiness

Tendency towards melanism


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lower predation pressure

tendency towards melanism

thermal advantage


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Viper, Vipera berus, Swedish islands in the Baltic Sea


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70

60

50

40

Melanism frequency (%)

30

20

10

0

insular

inland

coastal

Viper, Vipera berus, Swedish islands in the Baltic Sea

Forsman 1995


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0.9

Annual survival rate

0.7

zigzag males

0.5

melanistic males

1986-87

87-88

88-89

89-90

90-91

Year

Viper, Vipera berus, Swedish islands in the Baltic Sea

Forsman 1995


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Japanese four-lined ratsnake, Elaphe quadrivirgata, Yakushima Island

Tanaka 2007


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16

12

melanistic

striped

deviation from

preferred range (°C)

8

4

0

Jul

Sep

Oct

Nov

Month

Japanese four-lined ratsnake, Elaphe quadrivirgata, Yakushima Island

Tanaka 2007


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