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Earth’s Topography. Although our planet is called Earth, much of it is covered with water. All the land on Earth is surrounded by oceans How much of the Earth’s surface is covered with water? 25% 50% 70% 90%. Way to go! You’re on your way to becoming a topography wiz.

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Although our planet is called earth much of it is covered with water
Although our planet is called Earth, much of it is covered with water

  • All the land on Earth is surrounded by oceans

  • How much of the Earth’s surface is covered with water?

    • 25%

    • 50%

    • 70%

    • 90%


Way to go you re on your way to becoming a topography wiz
Way to go! with waterYou’re on your way to becoming a topography wiz

Click the image to continue


Major land divisions
Major Land Divisions with water

All the land on Earth can be categorized as

being one of the following:

  • Landmasses

  • Continents

  • Islands


Landmasses
Landmasses with water

  • Landmasses are areas of land consisting of one or more continents

  • There are only four major landmasses

    • Asia, Africa and Europe

    • North, South and Central America

    • Antarctica

    • Australia


Continents
Continents with water

  • Continents are landmasses that measure millions of square kilometers and rise a considerable distance above sea level

  • There are seven continents

    • Africa

    • Antarctica

    • Asia

    • Australia

    • Europe

    • South America

    • North America


Islands
Islands with water

  • Islands are small landmasses which are completely surrounded by water

  • Which of the following continents is also an island?

Africa Australia South America


Way to go! with waterYou know your continents

Click the image to continue


Sorry, your answer was incorrect with water

Click the image to go back and try again


Topography
Topography with water

  • Topography refers to the shape of the Earth’s surface

  • The surface of the Earth is changed by

    • Weather conditions

    • Running water

    • Earthquakes and volcanoes

    • People


Earth s topography is made up of different kinds of landscapes
Earth’s topography is made up of different kinds of landscapes

  • Landscapesare the physical features of the Earth’s surface

  • Landscapes are defined by their

    • Elevation- Height above sea level

    • Relief-The difference in a region’s elevation

  • There are three main types of landscape regions

    • Mountains

    • Plains

    • Plateaus


  • North landscapes

    American

    Landforms


    Mountains
    Mountains landscapes

    • Natural landforms that reach high elevations

    • Rise at least 600 meters above the surrounding land

    • Have narrow summits, steep slopes, and high relief


    Shaping mountains
    Shaping Mountains landscapes

    • Mountains result from the folding and breaking of Earth’s surface due to movements of portions of the crust

    • Can be created when hot magma from within the Earth breaks through the surface

    • Streams and rivers often carve valleys in mountains


    Groups of mountains
    Groups of Mountains landscapes

    • Mountain range-A roughly parallel series of mountains that have the same general shape and structure

    • Mountain system- A group of mountain ranges in an area

    • Mountain belt-A large group of mountains which includes mountain ranges and mountain systems


    Plains
    Plains landscapes

    • Plains are flat areas that have very small differences in elevation

    • Areas of low relief

    • Characterized by broad rivers and streams


    Coastal plains
    Coastal Plains landscapes

    • Coastal plainsare low, flat areas located along a coast

    • Formed when soil and silt were deposited on the edge of a continent

    • The fertile soil makes farming a major activity


    Interior plains
    Interior Plains landscapes

    • Interior plains are low flat areas found inland on a continent

    • Elevations are higher above sea level than coastal plains

    • Sediments deposited by rivers and streams make the soil good for farming


    Plateaus
    Plateaus landscapes

    • Plateaus are broad, flat areas of land that rise more than 600 meters above sea level

      • Surfaces are fairly flat

      • Have low relief

    • Most plateaus are located inland

    • Often have the same landscape for thousands of kilometers

    • Many plateaus of the world are dry, nearly desert like


    Introduction to maps
    Introduction to Maps landscapes

    • Map-A drawing of the Earth, or part of the Earth, on a flat surface

    • Globe- A spherical, orround, model of the Earth

      • The most accurate

        representation of the entire surface of the Earth

      • Shows the shapes, sizes, and locations of all the Earth’s landmasses

        and bodies of water


    Map scales
    Map Scales landscapes

    • Both maps and globes are drawn to scale

    • The scale compares distances on a map or globe to actual distances on the earth’s surface

    • The more closely the map approaches the land in size, the larger the scale will be


    Ways to show scale on a map
    Ways landscapesto show scale on a map

    Verbal

    Fractional

    Graphic


    Parallels
    Parallels landscapes

    • Parallelsare lines going from east to west across a map or globe

    • Imaginary lines that

      completely circle the Earth

    • Cross meridians at right

      angles

    • Used to measure latitude


    Latitude
    Latitude landscapes

    • Latitude- Measure of distance north and south of the equator

    • Lines are numbered in degrees from 0° at the equator to 90° at the poles

    • Latitudes must be labeled as

      being either north or south

      of the equator

    • One degree of latitude is equal

      to approximately 69 land miles


    Meridians
    Meridians landscapes

    • Meridians- Lines that run between the geographic North and South poles of the Earth

    • Each meridian represents half of an imaginary circle around the Earth

    • Prime Meridian- The meridian

      running through Greenwich,

      England (0° longitude)

    • Used to measure longitude


    Longitude
    Longitude landscapes

    • Longitude- Measure of distance east and west of the prime meridian

    • Lines are numbered in degrees from 0° at the prime meridian to 180° at the international date line

    • Longitudes must be designated as being either east or west of the prime meridian

    • Unlike lines of latitude, meridians

      are not parallel (farthest apart at

      the equator and get closer as they

      near the poles)


    Time zones
    Time Zones landscapes

    • Time zone- A longitudinal belt on the Earth in which all areas have the same local time

    • The Earth has been divided into 24 time zones that are 15° wide

      • Why 15° wide?

      • 360° (deg. in a circle)

        24 (hrs in a day)

    • There are 4 time zones in

      the contiguous United

      States (eastern, central,

      mountain, & pacific)

    = 15° (movement per hour)


    Determining local time
    Determining Local Time landscapes

    • When you cross from one time

      zone to another, the local time

      changes by one hour

    • Traveling east- you add one

      hour for each time zone

      you cross

    • Traveling west- you subtract

      one hour for each time zone

      you cross


    Crossing the international date line
    Crossing the International Date Line landscapes

    • The international date line is a special meridian (180° E or 180° W)

    • Not only do you change the time when you cross it, you also change the day

      • Traveling east- add one hour, but subtract a day

      • Traveling west- subtract one hour,

        but add a day


    Maps landscapes

    • Maps show locations and distances

    • Since the Earth is not flat, all maps have some distortion

      • Causes changes in the shapes and sizes of landmasses and

        oceans

      • The smaller the

        area mapped,

        the less distortion


    Projecting our globe onto a flat surface
    Projecting Our Globe Onto A Flat Surface landscapes

    • Globes are the most accurate way to represent the surface of the Earth

    • Since it’s not practical to carry a globe into the field, map makers must figure out how to represent a round map on a flat piece of paper


    Mercator or cylindrical map projections
    Mercator or Cylindrical Map Projections landscapes

    • A Mercator or cylindrical projection map is the most common type of map that we see

    • It’s like projecting an image of the globe on a movie screen that’s been wrapped around it

    • Areas close to the equator

      have very little distortion

    • The closer to the poles that

      one travels the more distorted

      the map becomes

    • Used for navigation


    Conic projections
    Conic Projections landscapes

    • A conic projection map is created by placing a cone shaped screen on a globe

    • Produces a fairly accurate representation of the portion of the Earth’s surface being mapped

    • Used for making

      topographic maps


    Gnomonic or plane projection
    Gnomonic or Plane Projection landscapes

    • A gnomonic or plane projection is created by placing an imaginary screen directly above, or below a globe

    • Used to plot the shortest distance between two points

    • Since it distorts both direction

      and distance, this type of map

      projection is seldom used


    Interrupted projection
    Interrupted Projection landscapes

    • There are many different types of interrupted

      projection maps

    • Depict the continents as accurately as possible by leaving blank space in the less important areas of the map, such as in the oceans


    Equal area projection
    Equal-Area Projection landscapes

    • For equal-area projections the meridians and parallels are placed on the map so that every part of the Earth is the same size on the map as it is on the globe

    • Correctly shows the

      amount of area a

      landmass covers,

      but distorts its shape


    Topographical maps
    Topographical Maps landscapes

    Topographic maps show the different shapes and sizes of land surfaces

    • Show small details of the topography of an area

    • Shows the location of landscape and cultural features

    • Showtherelief, or elevation change, of the land


    Contour lines
    Contour Lines landscapes

    • Most topographic maps use contour lines to show the relief of the land

    • Contour line- A line that passes through points on a map that have the same elevation (height above sea level)

    • Index contour- A bolder/wider brown line that has the elevation value marked at various intervals as a part of the line

      • These contours typically occur

        every fifth line

      • Use an index contour near the point

        for which you are trying to find the

        elevation as a first step to determining

        the elevation of that point


    Contour interval
    Contour Interval landscapes

    • Contour interval- The difference in elevation from one contour line to the next

      • The size of the interval depends on the relief of the land (mountains will need a bigger interval than a plain)

    • To calculate the contour interval, determine the distance between two successive index contours and then divide that number by 5

    Step 1:800 ft – 700 ft = 100 ft

    Step 2:100 ft ÷ 5 = 20 ft

    The contour interval would be 20 ft


    Rules for using contour lines
    Rules for using contour lines landscapes

    • Contour lines never cross or intersect

    • Closely spaced lines represent a steep slope

    • Contours spaced far apart represent a gentle slope

    • Contour lines that cross a valley are V-shaped

    • Contour lines form V’s that point upstream, or in a direction opposite the flow of the stream

    • Contours form closed loops around hilltops or depressions

    • Short dashes called hachures are used to indicate a depression

    • All contour lines either close or extend to the edge of a map


    Mapping etiquette
    Mapping Etiquette landscapes

    To make reading and using a map easier, all maps should have a:

    • Title- to know what you’re looking at

    • Compass rose or north facing arrow- to determine direction

    • Map scale- to determine distance

    • Map key (or legend)- to explain symbols used

    • Way to determine the contour interval on topographic maps


    Bel isle
    Bel Isle landscapes



    Reading A Topographic Map landscapes

    Spectacle Island

    Contour interval = 3 meters

    Elevation of the shoreline = ?

    Elevation of the north drumlin = ?

    Elevation of the visitor center = ?

    Elevation of the highest point = ?

    How deep is the ocean off the

    southwest tip of the island ?


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