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Introduction. Habitat: the place where an organism occurs Population: a group of organisms of the same species in an area

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Introduction

  • Habitat: the place where an organism occurs

  • Population: a group of organisms of the same species in an area

  • Community: all population & plants in the same area


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Introduction

  • Ecosystem: a stable, self-supporting system which consists of communities interacting with each other

  • Ecology: the study of the interactions between living organisms & their environment


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Different Habitats

Freshwater Pond

Freshwater Stream

Grassland


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Different Habitats

Rocky Shore

Mangrove

Coral Reef


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What is Environment ?

Composed of 2 components, Physical Factors & Biotic Factors, which influence the lives of organisms


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Physical Factors

  • Temperature

  • Light

  • Rainfall & Humidity

  • Wind Speed

  • Soil (esp. for plants)

  • pH


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Biotic Factors

Consists of all the other organisms living together in the same habitat


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Energy Flow within an Ecosystem

Tertiary Consumers

Respiration

DECOMPOSITION

Dead remains, excreta, etc

HEAT

Secondary Consumers

Primary Consumers

Producers

SUN


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Food Chain / Food Web

  • shows the feeding relationship between organisms

rabbit

snake

green

plants

hawk

grasshopper

lizard

toad


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Decomposers

  • not shown in food chain

  • consist of Bacteria & Fungi

  • break down organic wastes & dead bodies of other organisms to simpler compounds which are then absorbed by green plants

  • significance: enable the recycling of materials within an ecosystem


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First

Green plant

Producer

Second

Rabbit

Primary Consumer

Snake

Third

Secondary Consumer

Hawk

Fourth

Tertiary Consumer

Trophic Level

Organism

Type


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Pyramids of Numbers(Examples)

Tertiary Consumers

Secondary Consumers

Primary Consumers

Producers


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Pyramids of Biomass

1

Secondary Consumers

50

Primary Consumers

500

Producers


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Energy Lost up a Food Chain

  • Why is there energy loss ?

    • Uneaten food

    • Respiration

    • Egestion & Excretion

  • ∴ solving the food problem by…

    • consuming organisms in lower trophic levels

    • down a level, increase at least 10 times of food available


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1

Secondary Consumers

50

Primary Consumers

500

Producers

Pyramids of Biomass

Biomass is the total dry mass of organisms at a trophic level


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Effects of DDT

  • DDT is an effective pesticide

  • DDT has been used for about 20 years

  • It had been banned for over 20 years

  • But, nowadays, the body of every people still has DDT


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Effects of DDT

  • Reasons :

    • it has excessively long degeneration period (it requires tens of years)

    • it is not easy be destroyed by metabolism of living organisms, so it is easily accumulated along the food chain

  • It killed many predatory birds due to its accumulation to high concentration through the food chain



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Carbon Cycle

Carbon dioxide in air

absorption &

photosynthesis

respiration

respiration

organic substances

in animals

feeding

organic substances

in plants

burning

incomplete

decomposition

fossil


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Nitrogen Cycle

nitrifying bacteria

(nitrification)

ammonia

nitrate in soil

denitrifying

bacteria

(denitrification)

putrefying

bacteria

(decomposition)

nitrogen

in air

nitrogen-

fixing

bacteria

faeces, urine, dead body

absorption &

photosynthesis

protein in animals

protein in plants

feeding


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Investigation 23.1

Investigation of a Balanced Aquarium


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lid

water

water snail

freshwater plant

Why is it necessary to use tap water which has been standing for a few day ?

Ans: Because fresh tap water contains chlorine which is harmful to organisms in the aquarium.


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lid

water

water snail

freshwater plant

Why is it unsuitable to introduce large carnivores into the glass jar ?

Ans: Because they require more food to survive and they will eat up all the organisms in the aquarium.


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lid

water

water snail

freshwater plant

Describe the appearance of the water snails and the freshwater plants after a few days if the aquarium is balanced ?

Ans: The water snails and the aquatic plants will remain healthy even after a few weeks.


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lid

water

water snail

freshwater plant

What will happen to the aquarium if it is placed in darkness all the time ? Why ?

Ans: Both the water snails and the freshwater plants will gradually die since there is no light for the aquatic plants to carry out photosynthesis to make food…


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lid

water

water snail

freshwater plant

What will happen to the aquarium if it is placed in darkness all the time ? Why ?

Ans: so the plants cannot survive without food supply. As all aquatic plants died, the water snails also die due to starvation.


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Ecological Independence of Organisms

Predation

(Predator-prey relation)

Number

prey

Hare

Lynx

predator

Time


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Ecological Independence of Organisms

Number

Competition

(competitors)

the winner

the loser

Time

Cuckoo displacing the host’s egg


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Commensalism

  • one gets (physical) benefit, one feels no effect

  • organism benefited: Commensal

  • organism with no effect: Host

  • easy separate from each other

  • eg. barnacle on crab (barnacle gets transport)


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Mutualism

  • both obtain benefits

  • not easy separate (even cannot be separated)

  • e.g.1. lichen (mutualism of specific algae & fungi)

    • fungi absorb moisture from air and moist the algae

    • algae provide carbohydrates for the fungi


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Mutualism

  • e.g.2. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria & Leguminous Plants

    • bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen to nitrogenous compounds for the plant

    • the plant provides carbohydrates to bacteria


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Parasitism

  • parasite obtains benefits (food & protection)

  • host gets harmful effects

  • eg. tapeworm in man (endoparasites)


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~END~


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