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Day 9 Agenda. 09.15 Revision 09.45 Personal Protection Equipment 10.30 Break 10.45 Accident Investigation, RIDDOR, First Aid at Work 12.30 Lunch 1.30 Practical assessment Preparation 3.00 Break 3.15 Practical assessment Preparation Continued 4.15 Review and Link to Day 10

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Day 9 Agenda

09.15 Revision

09.45 Personal Protection Equipment

10.30 Break

10.45 Accident Investigation, RIDDOR, First Aid at Work

12.30 Lunch

1.30 Practical assessment Preparation

3.00 Break

3.15 Practical assessment Preparation Continued

4.15 Review and Link to Day 10

4.30 Course Close



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Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992

  • Equipment designed to be worn or held by a person at work for protection against a specific risk (not ordinary work clothes)

  • Hazard to include inclement weather

  • Always look at ‘safe place controls’ first

  • PPE - last stage of control


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Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992

  • Provision and suitability

    • Suitable for both Hazard and Ergonomically sound for the Person within the design range

  • Compatibility

  • Assessment of risks

  • Maintenance

  • Storage/ accommodation

  • Information, instruction, training

  • Use by employees, report defect

  • Replacement


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Design

hazard & risk

required function

conditions

effective control without increasing overall risk

CE marked

Wearer

health

capabilities

limitations

perception of the hazard

fit- ergonomic needs anatomy, av. size, comfort

Considerations for Design and Use


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Effectiveness / ‘Acceptability’

  • Comfort

    • Intrusion on personal comfort

    • Coping with discomfort & continued use

  • Perceived protection

    • Knowledge of hazard

    • Assessment of risk

    • Reinforced – Information Instructions and Training

  • Ease of use

    • Simple and easy to use

    • Close to hand


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Exercise

  • In what circumstances should PPE be used?

  • How will you choose what PPE will be most suitable?

  • Will you be able to charge workers for it?

    Consider footwear as an example


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Respiratory Protection

  • Respirators

    • Filters, needs appropriate filter for contaminant / s

    • Require environment to support life

    • Positive and Negative pressures (problem with seal)

  • Breathing apparatus

    • Doesn’t need good wholesome air

    • Has a defined time / distance

    • Different types :

      • Umbilical air fed type

      • Cylinder type


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Categories of PPE

  • Head

    • eyes

    • ears

    • respiratory protection

  • Arm and hand

  • Body protection

  • Skin

  • Legs

  • Feet


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Typical PPE Questions

1. Outline the factors to be considered in the correct selection of respiratory protection equipment for use at work (8)

2. a) Explain the difference between Breathing apparatus and Respirators(2)

b) Describe one type of breathing apparatus and state the limitations of its use (6)



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Accident Investigation Definition

  • A “Systematic Observation, Analysis and Evaluation of

  • Events that have occurred which have caused damage to

  • People, Property and ProductORhad the potential to

  • do so“.

  • The Investigation should highlight the deficiencies in the interaction between :-

    • The Environment

    • Management Systems

    • Equipment

    • Personal Factors

    • The Task


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Accident Investigation Outcomes

  • Specific Instructions by Management

  • Establishment of a Working Party

  • Issue of:

    • Codes of practice

    • New methods of work ( systems of work )

  • Identification of training needs

  • Task analysis

  • Provision of further information

  • Additional monitoring

  • Fines, Compensation, Insurance

  • Loss of work, orders, goodwill

  • Prohibition, Close Down

    ALL COST, TIME, or RESOURCE


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Accident InvestigationGeneral Points

  • Complete Investigation and report within 24 hours

  • Delegate investigation if busy

  • Never delay medical help to question an injured person

  • Ensure it is safe to interview, ask doctor / nurse

  • Injured person may be confused “state of shock”

  • Keep eye witnesses apart (not always reliable )

  • Interview separately

  • Clarify the difference between fact and opinion

  • Record as much factual detail as possible

    positions, distances etc, ( Cameras both still and Video )

  • Retain items as evidence


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Accidents / Ill Health: Investigation Procedure

  • Report the Accident

  • Investigation Procedure

    • Establish the facts

    • Gather Information

    • Draw conclusions

    • Report the results

  • Prevent a recurrence


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Investigation Sequence

  • Statutory and Other Notification

  • Site Visit

  • Record Physical details

  • Conduct Site Interviews

  • Conduct Off-Site Interviews

  • Draft a Report

  • Decide upon Remedial action

  • Produce the Final Report

  • Implement Remedial Action

  • Monitor Effectiveness

  • Feed back Information to Personnel involved


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Accident Investigation Kit

  • Pen, Paper, Clipboard

  • Camera, Video

  • Tape and Rule

  • An Aide Memoir

    • Subjects to cover, questions to ask, and a Pro-forma sheet to record basic details e.g ; dates, times, weather, location, conditions, people etc

  • Tape recorder :- ( Advantages )


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Accident Communication Sequence / Action

ACCIDENT

Dangerous

occurrence

Fatal

Injury

Reportable

Injury

Reportable

Disease

Inform

Inspectorate

Inform HSE

Insurers

Inform

Police

Investigate, Record Details

Collate Report


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Site Visit

  • Immediate Site Visits are Very Important to :-

    • Familiarise yourself with the physical layout

    • If you don’t go, any conclusions will be from other peoples reports, which are open to misunderstanding and misinterpretation

  • Establish Site Activities

    • The type of work and operation

    • How many people, what grades etc

    • Materials and equipment used

  • Confirm with someone who would be familiar

  • Record Details of the Accident Site

    • A scaled picture is worth a thousand words

    • Facts, time, machine, task, speed,etc

    • Talk directly to the people to identify ‘how the accident happened’

  • Question whether you are at the’ True Accident Site’ ?


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Investigation Procedure

P - people

E- equipment

M- materials

E- environment

Remember that the main reason for investigating accidents is to find out the facts and prevent a recurrence - NOT TO ALLOCATE BLAME


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Information Required

  • WHO

    • Injured, witnesses, contributed to the accident

  • WHAT

    • Happened, the sequence of events (Direct / indirect causes)

    • Precautions taken, their adequacy

    • Applicable Regulations, ACoP’s Guidance etc applied

  • WHEN

    • Did the accident occur

    • Were individuals trained etc

  • WHERE

    • Did the accident occur

  • HOW

    • Did the accident happen, Can we prevent a recurrence


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Lack of Basic Immediate Accident/ Injury/

management causes causes incident Ill-health control Loss

A B C D E

Proactive Reactive

Risk Risk

Management Management

Domino Theory of Accident Events


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Accident Causation Injury/

Indirect

Cause

Direct

Cause

A

Underlying

Factors

B

C

Root Cause


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Accident Management Procedure. Injury/

Accident

Employee reports to Line Manager, and

Occupational Health (OH) department

Who Reports ?

Who checks Contractors?

Line Manager Investigates !

Who checks after 3 days absence ?

What happens outside OH hours ?

TREATMENT IN OH DEPARTMENT OH

contacts line Manager if more info’ needed

Employee sent back to work

OH contacts Line Manager

Referral to Hospital

OH contacts Line Manager

Sent home / GP

OH contacts Line Manager.

Sent Homeor Hospital

OH contacts Line Manager

Line Manager: follow up,

RIDDOR, Ensure Employee

Reports to OH on return


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RIDDOR 98? Injury/

  • Reportable to HSE or Local Authority :-

  • Fatalities, Major Injuries reported

    • by telephone immediately and F2508 sent within 10 days

  • Over Three Day injuries reported

    • by F2508 sent within 10 days

  • Dangerous Occurrences reported

    • by telephone immediately and F2508 sent within 10 days

  • Diseases reported

    • by sending report F2508A “forthwith”

    • Records of reports kept for 3 years


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Major Injuries Reg 3(2) Injury/

  • Fractures:

    • Except in finger, thumbs or toes

  • Dislocation:

    • Shoulder, hip, knee or spine

  • Amputation

  • Eyes:

    • Loss of sight, penetration, chemical or metal burn

  • Loss of consciousness

  • Illness:

    • Requiring medical treatment caused by exposure to chemical or pathogens

  • Admission to hospital for more than 24 hours


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RIDDOR 98 Injury/

“over three day”

Incapacity for work for more than three consecutive days not counting the day of the accident but including any days which wouldnot normally be

worked.

In practise “more than three consecutive days” means at least 4 days.

Where someone returns to work but not carrying out work covered by their contract of employment then this is reportable



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Calculation of Injury Incidence Rates Injury/

Number of Reportable Accidents

Average number employed during year

 100,000



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Limitations of Accident Data Injury/

  • Under-reporting

  • cheating

  • interpretation of an accident e.g. do you report physical contact or aggressive language?

  • Sample size is usually not statistically sound

  • one event can skew figures

  • long term trends take time to show

  • measurement of failure

  • ignore specifics e.g. tasks in an office compared to a factory environment

  • often don’t consider hours worked


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Typical Accident Investigation Questions Injury/

1. Outline the immediate and longer term action that management should take following a serious injury accident at work (8)

2. Outline the information that should be included in an accident investigation (8)

3. Giving reasons in each case, identify FOUR categories of persons who may be considered a useful member of an internal accident investigation team (8)



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Assessment of First Aid Need Injury/

  • In assessing need, employers need to consider:

  • workplace hazards and risks

  • the size of the organisation

  • the organisation's history of accidents

  • the nature and distribution of the workforce

  • the remoteness of the site from emergency medical services

  • the needs of travelling, remote and lone workers

  • employees working on shared or multi-occupied sites

  • annual leave and other absences of first-aiders and appointed persons


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High Risk Considerations Injury/

Where work involves particular risk (even if the number of workers is low) e.g. work with hazardous chemicals or machinery, first aid needs will be greater

Employers may need to :

  • provide a sufficient number of first-aiders so that someone is always available to give first aid immediately following an incident

  • train first-aiders in special procedures

  • inform the local emergency services, in writing,of the site where hazardous substances or processes are in use

  • provide first-aid room(s)


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Minimum Contents of A Injury/First Aid Box

Guidance

1 Individually wrapped sterile adhesive dressings

2 Sterile eye pads with attachments

2 Triangular bandages

4 Safety pins

6 Medium sized sterile unmediated dressings

6 Large sterile unmediated wound dressings

2 Disposable Gloves

  • See ACoP

  • Remember Car Kits


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Incident Recording Injury/

  • date, time and place of incident;

  • name and job of the injured or ill person;

  • details of the injury/illness and what first aid was given;

  • what happened to the person immediately afterwards (for example went home, went back to work, went to hospital);

  • name and signature of the first-aider or person dealing with the incident.

Date

Accident


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First-Aider Competencies Injury/

First-Aiders need to be able to :

  • transport a casualty safely as required by the circumstances of the workplace

  • recognise common major illnesses and take appropriate action

  • recognise minor illnesses and take appropriate action

  • maintain simple factual records and provide written information to a doctor or hospital if required

    Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the principles of first aid at work, in particular of:

  • the importance of personal hygiene in first-aid procedures

  • the legal framework for first-aid provision at work

  • the use of first-aid equipment provided in the workplace

  • the role of the first-aider in emergency procedures


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Appointed Persons Injury/

  • Appointed Persons are NOT First Aiders :-

    • Have a co-ordinating role

    • Contact Emergency Services

    • Replenished first Aid equipment

  • Appointed Persons may wish to know :

    • what to do in an emergency

    • cardio-pulmonary resuscitation

    • first aid for the unconscious casualty

    • first aid for the wounded or bleeding


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First Aid Regulations 1981 Injury/

  • Duty of Employer to make provision for first aid

    • assessment of need

    • first aid materials, equipment and facilities

    • first aid personnel

  • Duty of employer to inform employees of arrangements

    • information for employees

  • Duty of self-employed to provide first aid equipment

    Appendix 1 :

    • Assessment of first aid needs checklist

      Appendix 2 :

    • First aid competencies


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Typical First Aid Questions Injury/

1. Outline the factors to be considered when deciding the numbers of first-aiders that may be required at the workplace (8)



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Practical Inspection Injury/

Aim

  • to undertake a workplace inspection

  • note any hazards and the way they are controlled

  • identify safe and unsafe working practices

  • recommend appropriate and cost effective remedial action

  • prepare a report identifying items requiring immediate management action


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Practical Assessment Injury/

  • The inspection will take place of a work area and will :-

    • Take up to 1 hour

      Total marks 55%

  • The report to management

    • Takes up to 1 hour.

    • Identifies risk based priorities

    • Legal breaches, Costs,

    • Inform management of Recommendations

    • Should be approximately 3 -4 pages long

      Total marks 45%

  • Overall pass mark 60%


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Hazard Observations Injury/

  • Range of issues identified = 5%

  • Number of hazards identified = 20%

  • Identification of immediate, and

    where appropriate, long term

    action =10%

  • Suitability of remedial action =20%

    Total =55%


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NEBOSH Practical Assessment Injury/

Candidates Name : Any BodyDate of Assessment : 19 / 06 / 05

Place of assessment : XYZ Ltd Assessor : John Smith

Observations CommentsPriority

List, Unsafe Practices andList any Immediate or Longer – termI M L

any Good practicesaction required

1.Cable from the OHP to power point on floor Remove the cable I

Is a tripping hazard Consider Redesign L

2.No segregation between Traffic and Pedestrians Erect speed limit signs I

Consider speed bumps M

3.Heavy items stored on high shelves (photocopy room) Remove / relocate items I

Redesign shelf units M

4.Shelves in Photocopy room very loose Secure to the wall I

Consider better design of shelving M

5. Fire signs, Extinguishers etc Very good practice No Action necessary n / a

etc, etc, etc


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Report to Management Injury/

  • Selection of topics for urgent management action =10%

  • Consideration of cost implications = 5%

  • Identification of breaches and legislation = 5%

  • Presentation =10%

  • Effectiveness in convincing management to take action=15%

    Total =45%


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NEBOSH Certificate Injury/Practical Assessment Report

I am writing further to an inspection of the WATA Training Centre, on _______ 2000 which took no

more than an hour, my report is as follows :-

Training Room Cable

The cable from the OHP presents a tripping hazard, from which a visitor or employee

could fall and severely damage themselves, this could lead to prosecution of the

company and perhaps to individuals. In addition to which the injured person may sue the

company or individuals. Should this happen, the insurance premiums could rise and the

insurance company impose extra controls.

This would be a breach of the Workplace (Health Safety and Welfare) Regulations

Recommendation

Immediately remove the cable at a cost of £150. In the long term consider re – designing

The location of the power point

  • NEXT HEADING

  • Produce a paragraph at the end to prioritise all the hazards observed


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Revision Injury/


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Common / Civil Law Questions Injury/

  • Define the term ‘Negligence’ (2)

    • What the reasonable prudent person would not do OR what the reasonable prudent person would have done in the circumstances

  • Outline the possible defences available to employers in cases of alleged negligence (6)

    • No Duty owed

    • Duty owed no negligent act

    • Negligent act but couldn’t have caused harm etc

    • Contributory negligence

    • Volenti non fit injuria

    • Facts speak for themselves


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Vicarious Liability Injury/

a) State the circumstances in which an employer may be held vicariously liable for the negligence of an employee (2)

  • Negligent Act

  • In course of employment

    b) Outline the legal duties placed on employers to help to ensure that employees behave in a safemanner (6)

  • Duty of Care

  • HSW Act

  • Management Regulations

  • PPE Regs,


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Common Law Negligence Injury/

  • Define the term ‘Negligence’(2)

    • What the reasonable prudent person would not do OR what the reasonable prudent person would have done in the circumstances

  • Outline the Three standard conditions that must be met for an employee to prove a case of alleged negligence against an employer (6)

    • Was a Duty of Care (Neighbour Principle) snail in the bottle case

    • Duty was broken

    • Damage injury or loss was result of the breach


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Differences between Civil / Criminal Law Injury/

Statute Law

  • Laws made by Parliament

  • Governs Relationship between Individual and the State

  • Acts and Regulations

    (Direct Legislation)

  • Best course of action for the Community

  • Crime

  • Prosecute, Imprisoned in Magistrates or Crown courts

  • No loss necessary

  • No Insurance available

    Proof = Beyond Reasonable Doubt

Common Law

  • Evolved through “precedents”

  • Safe Working Environment

    ‘Safe Systems of Work’

  • Governs relationships between Individuals

  • Law of “Contract”

  • Law of “ TORT” (Negligence)

  • Can Sue in the County (Civil) Court for Compensation

  • Loss or harm suffered

  • Insurance available

    Proof = Balance of Probabilities

Explain the Differences between civil and criminal Law (8)


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Typical Statute Law Questions 1 Injury/

1. Explain using TWO examples the meaning of the term ‘so far as is reasonably practicable’ (8)

2. Outline the general duties placed on employees by ;

  • the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (4)

  • the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 (4)

    3. State the duties of the employers to employees under s2 of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (8)

    4. With reference to the Health and Safety at Work act 1974, outline the duties of persons in control of premises towards Non-employees (8)

    5. Outline the main duties under Section 6 of the health and Safety at Work Act 1974

    placed upon manufactures, suppliers and importers of substances for use at work (8)


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Typical Statute Law Questions Injury/

1. a) Outline the general duties placed on employees by section 7 and 8 of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (6)

b) Outline a specific duty placed on employees by the management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 (2)


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Typical Inspector Powers Questions Injury/

1. Outline the powers given to Health and Safety Inspectors under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (8)

2. Explain the action an Enforcement Officer could take when it is believed that an organisation has failed to comply with the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (8)

3. a) Explain the difference between an ‘Improvement Notice’ and a ‘Prohibition Notice (4)

b) What are the penalties for contravention of such notices by an employer (4)

4. Explain, using an example in each case, the circumstances under which a health and safety inspector may serve :

  • An Improvement Notice (4)

  • A Prohibition Notice (4)

    5. Outline the effect on the notice of appealing against EACH type of enforcement notice (4)


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Typical Management Regs Questions Injury/

1.Outline the general requirements of the Management of Health and Safety

at Work Regulations 1999 (8)

2. State EIGHT requirements of the Management of Health and Safety at

Work Regulations 1999 (8)

3. a) Explain the meaning of the term ‘Competent Person’ (4)

b) Outline FOUR checks that could be made to assess competence (4)


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Typical Risk Assessment Questions Injury/

1. Explain with examples the meaning of the terms:-

  • Hazard (4)

  • Risk (4)

    2. a) Outline the HSE ‘5’ Steps to risk assessment (6)

    b) Explain the importance of risk assessment (2)

    3. Outline the factors that should be considered in a risk assessment as required by the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 (8)

    4. In relation to the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulation 1999 a) explain the meaning of the term ‘suitable for and sufficient’ (2)

    b) Outline the changes in circumstances that may require a risk assessment to be reviewed (6)


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Typical Workplace Regulations Questions Injury/

1 Outline FOUR requirements of the workplace(Health , Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 (8)

2. Outline the welfare requirements for the employee under the Workplace (Health and Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 (8)

3. Outline the factors that should be considered when assessing the adequacy of lighting in EITHER ;

A vehicle maintenance workshop

Or

An office containing DSE (8)


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Typical Signs Questions Injury/

1. State the shape and colours of the following types of Safety Signs and give a typical example of each :

Prohibition (2)

Warning (2)

Mandatory (2)

Emergency escape or First Aid (2)


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Typical Human Body Questions Injury/

1. a) Define the term ‘Target Organ within the context of occy’ health (2)

b)Outline the personal hygiene practices that should be followed to reduce the ingestion of a hazardous substance (6)

b) Describe the body’s respiratory defence mechanism against atmospheric dust (6)

2. a) List THREE respiratory diseases that could be caused by exposure to dust at work (3)

b) Describe the body’s respiratory defence mechanisms against atmospheric dust (7)

c) Outline the control measures that may be used to eliminate or reduce dust in a work environment, using practical examples where appropriate (10)


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Typical COSHH Questions Injury/

1. a) outline the factors that should be considered when carrying out an assessment as required by the COSHH Regulations (6)

b) Outline the relevance of HSE Guidance EH40 ‘Occupational Exposure Limits’ (2)

2. a) Explain the differences between an occupational exposure standard (OES) and a maximum exposure limit (MEL) (6)

b) Give an example of a substance in each type of occupational exposure limit (2)

3. Outline the information that employees should receive when there is a risk that their work will exposure them to a substance hazardous to health (8)

4. Identify the information that should be included on a hazard Data Sheet supplied with a hazardous substance (8)

5. a) Explain the term ‘dilution ventilation’ (3)

b) Describe the circumstances under which dilution ventilation would be appropriate (5)

6. a) Draw a labelled sketch of a local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system showing the main components (6)

b) Give TWO practical examples of where a LEV system could be used (2)


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Typical Accident Causation Questions Injury/

1. Describe the types of human error that can lead to accidents in the workplace (8)

2. a) Explain using examples, the differences between the ‘cause of accident’ and the ’cause of injury’ (4)

b) Explain why an understanding of the differences referred to above is important when investigating accidents (4)

3. a) Explain the differences between immediate causes and the root (underlying causes) of an accident (4)

b) with reference to an accident involving an operator who comes into contact with a dangerous part of a machine, Describe;

  • The possible immediate causes ; and

  • The possible root (underlying ) causes(16)

    4. a) Identify the types of hazard that may cause slips and trips at work (4)

    b) Outline how the hazards in (a) might be controlled (4)


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Typical DSE Questions Injury/

1. Outline the requirements of the DSE Regulations 1992 (8)

2. a) Outline the possible risks to health associated with the use of DSE (4)

b) Explain how the risks in (a) may be minimised (4)

3. a) Explain the meaning of the term ‘Ergonomic’ (2)

b) Outline the Main factors to be considered in an ergonomic assessment of a workstation to be used by an operator of a Visual Display Screen Unit (DSE) (6)

4. List factors that should be taken into account when assessing the suitability of a workstation for the user of the visual display unit (8)


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Typical Communications Questions Injury/

1. Outline the sources of information that could be consulted when developing a Safe System of Work (8)

2. Outline the various methods of communicating health and safety information to the workforce (8)

3. Outline the reasons that may prevent a verbal instruction being clearly understood by an employee (8)

4. Outline the various ways in which a Safety Policy Document could be communicated to the workforce (8)


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Typical Training Questions Injury/

1. Outline the main health and safety topics to be included in an induction training programme for new employees (8)

2. Outline how health and safety training needs can be identified (8)

3. Outline the events that may create a need for additional health and safety training within an organisation (8)

4. Outline the factors to be considered when preparing and presenting a health and safety training session (8)

5. Explain why induction training is important in the prevention of accidents (8)

6. Outline the issues that should be included in a training programme for employees on the emergency action to take in the event of a fire (8)


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Typical Safety Reps and Committee Questions Injury/

1. a) Explain the circumstances under which an employer must form a Health and Safety committee (2)

b) Give reasons why a Health and Safety Committee may be ineffective (6)

2. Outline the functions of a safety representative as stated in the Safety Committees Regulations 1977 (8)

3. With regards to the Safety Representatives and Safety Committee Regulations 1977 ;

  • Explain the occasions when a safety representative is legally entitled to inspect the workplace (6)

  • Describe the facilities that an employer may need to provide to safety representatives (2)


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Typical Fire Questions Injury/

  • Explain the methods of heat transfer that cause the fire to spread (8)

  • Outline the main requirements of a safe means of escape from a building in the event of a fire (8)

  • Outline the precautions that should be taken when storing and handling flammable solvents in small containers (8)

  • Outline the factors that should be considered when preparing a procedure to deal with a workplace emergency (8)

  • a) Explain with a suitable sketch the meaning of the fire triangle (4)

    b) List the sources of ignition that may cause a fire to occur giving an example of EACH (4)


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Typical Radiation Questions Injury/

1. a) Outline the possible effects on health arising from exposure to ionising radiation (4)

b) Outline the main principles of control for ionising radiation (4)

2. a) Explain the difference between ionising and non-ionising radiation (3)

b)Describe the health effects associated with exposure to non-ionising radiation (5)


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Typical FLT Questions Injury/

1. Outline the hazards and the corresponding precautions to be taken when charging batteries for fork lift trucks (8)

2. Outline the main hazards of the fork truck operation (8)

Hazards Precautions

Weight Define danger areas/Prohibition

Untrained operators Train Operators

etc


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FLT Q1 Injury/

1. List the ways in which a fork lift truck may become unstable whilst in operation (8)

Too fast around corners

Unstable load


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Fork Lift Truck Injury/

1. List EIGHT rules to be followed to minimise the risk of Fork Lift Trucks overturning (8)

Eight Rules Could be :-

1.Adequate Training

2.Competent persons

3.Speed restrictions

4.Stacking control

5.Preventing the use of forward tilt

6.Good road surfaces (maintenance)

7.Risk Assessment of working environment

8.Truck maintenance

9.Load compatibility to truck

10.Loading protocol


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Typical Slinging Questions Injury/

1. Outline the precautions that should be taken during lifting operations with a mobile crane (8)

2. Outline the procedure for the safe lifting of a load by the crane, having ensured that the crane has been correctly selected and positioned for the job (8)


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Typical Transport Questions Injury/

1. Outline the main precautions to be taken to ensure the safe transport of hazardous substances by road (8)

2. Outline measures to be taken to prevent accidents when pedestrians are required to work in vehicle manoeuvring areas (8)


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Typical Manual Handling Questions Injury/

1. a) List TWO types of injury that could result from poor Manual Handling techniques (2)

b) Outline the general strategy that an employer is required to take to reduce the risk of injury from manual handling operations in the workplace (6)

2. a) Define the term ‘Manual Handling’ (2)

b) List THREE categories of injury that could be caused by the incorrect manual handling of loads (3)

c) Outline practical measures designed to reduce the risk of injury from manual handling activities at work (15)

4. a) List TWO types of injury that may be caused by the incorrect manual handling of loads (2)

b) Outline a good handling technique that could be adopted by a person required to lift a load from the ground (6)

5. a) List the main factors to be considered in the making of an assessment under the Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 (4)

b) Outline practical risk reduction measures in relation to manual handling (16)


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Typical Machinery Questions Injury/

1. List EIGHT types mechanical hazards associated with machinery as described in BS EN 292 (8)

2. List EIGHT non – mechanical hazards associated with machinery (8)

3. Provide sketches to show clearly the nature of the following mechanical hazards from moving parts of machinery :

a) Entanglement (2)

b) Crushing (2)

c) Drawing in (2)

d) Shear (2)

4. In relation to machinery safety, outline the basic principles of EACH of the following types of safeguard :-

a) Fixed guard (2)

b) Interlocking guard (2)

c) Automatic guard (2)

d) Trip device (2)


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Typical Maintenance Questions Injury/

1. a) Identify the specific hazards associated with routine maintenance of machinery (4)

b) Outline how such hazards may be controlled (4)

2. Describe the practical measures that must be taken to ensure maintenance work is undertaken safely in an enclosed storage tank (8)

3. Identify FOUR mechanical hazards presented by Pedestal drill and outline in EACH case how injury may occur (8)


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Typical PUWER Questions Injury/

1. Describe the general hierarchy of measures for safe guarding of dangerous parts of machinery as required by the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (8)

2. List the main requirements of the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (8)


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Typical WRULD’S Questions Injury/

1. Outline the factors to be considered when assessing risks to the health of a user of DSE (8)

2. Outline the possible risks to Health and Safety faced by the operator of a pneumatic drill (8)


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Typical Electricity Questions Injury/

1. a) Outline the main electrical hazards arising from work on a construction site (4)

b) Describe the precautions that should be taken to minimise these hazards (4)

2. a) Describe the function and limitations of a fuse as an electrical protection (6)

b) Explain TWO advantages that a residual current device (RCD) has over a fuse (2)

3. Describe the principles of operation of the following types of electrical protection :

a) Earthing (4)

b) Reduced voltage (4)

4. List the items that should be included on an inspection checklist designed to ensure the safety of portable appliances (8)

5. a) Outline the dangers associated with electricity (4)

b) Outline the emergency action to take if a person suffers a severe electrical shock (4)


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Typical Construction Questions Injury/

1. Outline EIGHT precautions that may be taken to ensure the safety of children who might be tempted to gain access to a construction site (8)

2. Prepare a check list for the inspection of a mobile tower scaffold prior to use (8)

3. a)Sketch a labelled diagram of a putlog scaffold indicating its principal safety features (5)

b) List the inspection requirements of all erected scaffolds (3)

4. In relation to safe access for construction work above ground :

a) Identify by means of a labelled sketch, the component parts of an independent tied scaffold (10)

b) outline the precautions that should be taken when using a ladder as a means of access to the scaffold (10)


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Construction Injury/

1. Outline the precautions that should be taken when using mobile cranes (8)

2. a) Outline FOUR ways in which a person may be injured when using a ladder at work (4)

b) List the precautions that should be taken to ensure the safe use of Ladders (4)


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Typical Demolition Questions Injury/

1. List the hazards that may be encountered during the demolition of a multi – storey building (8)

2. Outline the main precautions when carrying out demolition work (8)


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Typical Contractor Questions Injury/

1. Prepare a check list for the safe use of suspended access equipment, such as a window cleaning cradle (8)

2. a) outline FOUR duties placed upon a PRINCIPLE contractor by the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 (4)

b) List FOUR factors that should be considered by a PRINCIPLE contractor when assessing the health and safety competence of a sub – contractor (4)


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Typical CDM and Control of Contractor Questions Injury/

1. Outline FOUR duties under the Construction (Design and Management ) Regulations 1994 of EACH of the following persons:

a) The Client (4)

b) The Planning supervisor (4)

2. a) Outline FOUR duties placed upon a PRINCIPLE contractor by the CDM Regulation (4)

b) List FOUR factors that should be considered by a Principle contractor when assessing the health and safety competence of a sub – contractor (4)


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Typical Noise Questions Injury/

1. Outline the possible effects on health from exposure to noise (8)

2. a) Describe the TWO main types of personal hearing protection (4)

b) Identify FOUR reasons why personal hearing protection may fail to provide adequate protection against noise (4)

3. a) Explain the meaning of the term ‘dB (A)’ in relation to noise measurement (2)

b) Outline the following methods of noise reduction, giving ONE practical example of each :

a) Absorption (3)

b) Isolation (3)

4. Explain the meaning of the following terms in relation to noise control :-

  • Silencing (2)

  • Absorption (2)

  • Damping (2)

  • Isolation (2)



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Typical PPE Questions Injury/

1. Outline the factors to be considered in the correct selection of respiratory protection equipment for use at work (8)

2. a) Explain the difference between Breathing apparatus and Respirators (2)

b) Describe one type of breathing apparatus and state the limitations of its use (6)


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Typical Accident Investigation Questions Injury/

1. Outline the immediate and longer term action that management should take following a serious injury accident at work (8)

2. Outline the information that should be included in an accident investigation (8)

3. Giving reasons in each case, identify FOUR categories of persons who may be considered a useful member of an internal accident investigation team (8)


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Typical First Aid Questions Injury/

1.Outline the factors to be considered when deciding the numbers of first-aiders that may be required at the workplace (8)


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