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Chapter 14 Animals of the Pelagic Environment. Essentials of Oceanography 7 th Edition. Pelagic organisms. Organisms that live in the pelagic environment: Live suspended within the water column Can float or swim Have adaptations that allow them to stay above the ocean floor.

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chapter 14 animals of the pelagic environment

Chapter 14 Animals of the Pelagic Environment

Essentials of Oceanography

7th Edition

pelagic organisms
Pelagic organisms
  • Organisms that live in the pelagic environment:
    • Live suspended within the water column
    • Can float or swim
    • Have adaptations that allow them to stay above the ocean floor
staying above the ocean floor
Staying above the ocean floor
  • Adaptations for staying above the ocean floor:
    • Rigid gas containers
    • Swim bladder
    • Ability to float

Swim bladder

Figure 14-2

Gas containers in cephalopods

Figure 14-1

microscopic floating organisms radiolarians
Microscopic floating organisms: Radiolarians
  • Radiolarians produce a hard test composed of silica
  • Tests have projections to increase surface area

Figure 14-3

microscopic floating organisms foraminifers
Microscopic floating organisms: Foraminifers
  • Foraminifers produce a hard test composed of calcium carbonate
  • Test is segmented or chambered

Figure 14-4

microscopic floating organisms copepods
Microscopic floating organisms: Copepods
  • Copepods have a hard exoskeleton and a segmented body with jointed legs
  • Relatives of shrimp, crabs, and lobsters

Figure 14-5

macroscopic floating organisms krill
Macroscopic floating organisms: Krill
  • Krill are related to copepods but are larger in size
  • Abundant in Antarctic waters, where they are a favorite food of the largest whales

Figure 14-6

macroscopic floating organisms coelenterates
Macroscopic floating organisms: Coelenterates
  • Coelenterates are soft-bodied organisms including:
    • Siphonophores (Portuguese man-of war)
    • Scyphozoans (jellyfish)

Figure 14-7a

swimming organisms nekton
Swimming organisms (nekton)
  • Larger pelagic organisms can swim against currents and often migrate long distances
  • Nektonic organisms include:
    • Squid
    • Fish
    • Marine mammals
squid
Squid
  • Squid are invertebrates that swim by taking water into their body cavity and forcing it out through their siphon

Figure 14-8

fish adaptations
Fish: Adaptations
  • Feeding styles: Lungers versus cruisers
    • Lungers sit and wait for prey to come close by
    • Cruisers actively seek prey
  • Cold-blooded versus warm-blooded
    • Most fish are cold-blooded
    • A few active fish are warm-blooded
  • Many fish school to avoid predators
fish deep water nekton
Fish: Deep-water nekton
  • Adaptations of deep-sea fish:
    • Good sensory devices
    • Bioluminescence
    • Large, sharp teeth
    • Large mouths and expandable bodies
    • Hinged jaws

Figure 14-11

marine mammals
Marine mammals
  • Characteristics of marine mammals:
    • Warm-blooded
    • Breathe air
    • Have hair (or fur)
    • Bear live young
    • Females have mammary glands that produce milk for their young
marine mammals order carnivora
Marine mammals: Order Carnivora
  • All members of order Carnivora have prominent canine teeth
  • Includes:
    • Sea otters
    • Polar bears
    • Pinnipeds (flipper-footed)
      • Walrus
      • Seals
      • Sea lions/fur seals

California sea lions

Figure 14-17c

differences between seals and sea lions fur seals
Differences between seals and sea lions/fur seals
  • Seals:
    • Lack ear flaps
    • Have small front flippers
    • Have claws
    • Cannot rotate hind flippers beneath themselves

Figure 14-18

marine mammals order sirenia
Marine mammals: Order Sirenia
  • Sirenian characteristics:
    • Large body size
    • Sparse hair all over body
    • Vegetarians
    • Toenails (on manatees only)
  • Includes:
    • Manatees
    • Dugongs
marine mammals order cetacea
Marine mammals: Order Cetacea
  • Cetacean characteristics:
    • Blowholes on top of skull
    • Skull telescoped (streamlined shape)
    • Very few hairs
  • Includes:
    • Whales, dolphins, and porpoises
two suborders of order cetacea
Two suborders of order Cetacea
  • Suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales)
    • Echolocate (send sound through water)
    • Includes killer whale, sperm whale, dolphins, porpoises, and many others
  • Suborder Mysticeti (baleen whales)
    • Have rows of baleen plates instead of teeth
    • Includes blue whale, finback whale, humpback whale, gray whale, and many others
differences between dolphins and porpoises
Differences between dolphins and porpoises
  • Dolphins have:
    • An elongated snout (rostrum)
    • A sickle-shaped (falcate) dorsal fin
    • Teeth that end in points

Killer whale jawbone

Figure 14-22

odontoceti echolocation
Odontoceti echolocation
  • Sound is bounced off objects to determine:
    • Size
    • Shape
    • Distance
    • Internal structure

Figure 14-24

mysticeti the baleen whales
Mysticeti: The baleen whales
  • Mysticeti whales have baleen instead of teeth
  • Baleen plates:
    • Hang as parallel rows from the upper jaw
    • Are made of keratin
    • Are used as a strainer to capture zooplankton
    • Allows baleen whales to eat krill and small fish by the ton
baleen
Baleen

Figure 14-25

types of baleen whales
Types of baleen whales
  • Baleen whales include three families:
    • Gray whale (a bottom-feeder with short baleen)
    • Rorqual whales (medium-sized baleen)
      • Balaenopterids (blue whales, finback whales, and other large whales )
      • Megapterids (humpback whales)
    • Right whales (surface skimmers with long baleen)
an example of migration gray whales
An example of migration: Gray whales
  • Gray whales undertake the longest annual migration of any mammal:
    • Spend wintertime in birthing and breeding lagoons in Mexico
    • Spend summertime feeding in highly productive Arctic waters

Figure 14-27

end of chapter 14

End of Chapter 14

Essentials of Oceanography

7th Edition

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