Chapter 11 The Bureaucracy. What is a bureaucracy? A large organization that is structured hierarchically to carry out specific functions (”Fourth branch of Govt.”) Private bureaucracies exist within organizations like corporations. They have a single set of leaders
Enabling Legislation: Where Congress delegates power to an agency. “It generally specifies the name, purpose, composition, functions, and powers of the agency”
Agencies should implement the laws that Congress passes, but most of the time those laws are vague. Discretion is given to agencies and their administrators, but it is not accidental. Congress cannot keep up with the expertise that may be needed in public policy.
Rule making capabilities. 60-day waiting period.
Negotiated Rulemaking: Putting all the direct players together and discussing the proposed rules (rule drafting) before hand…to avoid lawsuits. Negotiated Rulemaking Act of 1990.
Iron Triangles: A three-way alliance among legislators, bureaucrats, and interest groups.
Issue Networks: A group of individuals or organizations that support a particular policy position on some issue. They have replaced “Iron Triangles” due to the complexity of policymaking today. Too many interest groups, size of the bureaucracy, increased number of subcommittees, agencies that are controlled by more than one legislative group. They usually include: legislators, scholars, bureaucrats, experts, interest groups, media, etc.Bureaucrats as Politicians and Policymakers