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Bridge Engineering Research at The University of Sheffield


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Bridge Engineering Research at The University of Sheffield. Dr Paul Reynolds Vibration Engineering Section http://vibration.shef.ac.uk/. The Department of Civil and Structural Engineering. 27 academics – 11 in structures Particular research strengths in

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Bridge Engineering Research at The University of Sheffield

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Bridge Engineering ResearchatThe University of Sheffield

Dr Paul Reynolds

Vibration Engineering Section

http://vibration.shef.ac.uk/


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The Department of Civil and Structural Engineering

  • 27 academics – 11 in structures

  • Particular research strengths in

    • structures (dynamics, NFR, fire, computational mechanics)

    • concrete materials (durability, sustainability)

    • groundwater protection and restoration

  • Areas of interest specific to bridge engineering

    • use of FRP composites in bridges

    • masonry arch bridges and parapets

    • vibration serviceability of footbridges

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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The Centre for Cement and Concrete (CCC)

  • Established 1993

  • Director: Professor Peter Waldron

  • Academic Members: 17

  • Researchers: 48

  • Manager: Dr Kypros Pilakoutas

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Vibration Engineering Section

  • VES was established by Prof. Peter Waldron in 1993

  • Currently managed by Drs Paul Reynolds and Aleksandar Pavic

  • Expertise in vibration serviceability of civil engineering structures, including:

    • floors

    • sports stadia

    • footbridges

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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London Millennium Bridge

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Vibration Serviceability of Footbridges

  • VES has been engaged in footbridge VS research since 1993

  • London Millennium Bridge raised awareness of the problems

    • SLE is a relatively uncommon particular problem that needs to be fully understood

    • there are much more common issues that require further research

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Areas of Current Uncertainty

Synchronous Lateral Excitation (SLE)

Source

Path

Receiver

  • Pedestrian Excitation

  • individual pedestrians

  • small groups

  • large crowds

  • Vandal Loading

  • Non-Pedestrian Excitation

  • Modelling

  • inclusion of non- structural components

  • boundary conditions

  • simplified methods?

  • Designing in Damping

  • the future?

  • Acceptable Levels of

  • Vibration

  • stationary vs. moving

  • Levels of Vibration to

  • cause “lock-in”

  • horizontal

  • vertical

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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VES Approach to VS

Analytical Modelling

Dynamic Testing

  • Finite Element Analysis

  • (usually ANSYS)

  • MATLAB simulations

  • time domain simulations using convolution methods

  • Monte-Carlo simulations to examine statistical models of human excitation

  • Modal Testing

  • using shaker excitation

  • using natural/ambient excitation

  • Vibration Response

  • Measurements

  • controlled pedestrians

  • vandal loading

  • Remote Monitoring

  • FE model correlation

  • MAC/COMAC etc.

  • FE model updating

  • FEMtools software

LEARNING HOW TO

MODEL BETTER

FOOTBRIDGEDYNAMICS

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Shaker Modal Testing

Aberfeldy Footbridge – Scotland

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Shaker Modal Testing

Input

LinearSystem

Output

controlled shaker excitation

acceleration response

measurement

natural frequencies

mode shapes

modal damping ratios

modal masses

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Shaker Modal Testing

  • Lateral Modes

f = 0.98 Hz

ζ = 1.0 %

f = 2.73 Hz

ζ = 1.2 %

f = 5.72 Hz

ζ = 1.7 %

f = 8.50 Hz

ζ = 2.7 %

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Shaker Modal Testing

  • Vertical Modes

f = 1.52 Hz

ζ = 0.4 %

f = 1.86 Hz

ζ = 0.70 %

f = 2.49 Hz

ζ = 0.7 %

f = 3.01 Hz

ζ = 0.8 %

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Shaker Modal Testing

  • Torsional Modes

f = 3.48 Hz

ζ = 5.5 %

f = 4.29 Hz

ζ = 3.2 %

f = 5.10 Hz

ζ = 4.2 %

f = 6.05 Hz

ζ = 3.3 %

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Shaker Modal Testing of London Millennium Bridge

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Ambient Vibration Testing

Royal Victoria Dock Bridge – London

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Ambient Vibration Testing

f = 0.39 Hz

ζ = 1.7 %

f = 1.27 Hz

ζ = 0.8 %

f = 2.58 Hz

ζ = 0.4 %

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Pedestrian Response Tests

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Areas for Future Research

Areas of Current Uncertainty

Synchronous Lateral Excitation (SLE)

Source

Path

Receiver

  • Pedestrian Excitation

  • individual pedestrians

  • small groups

  • large crowds

  • Vandal Loading

  • Non-Pedestrian Excitation

  • Modelling

  • inclusion of non- structural components

  • boundary conditions

  • simplified methods?

  • Designing in Damping

  • the future?

  • Acceptable Levels of

  • Vibration

  • stationary vs. moving

  • Levels of Vibration to

  • cause “lock-in”

  • horizontal

  • vertical

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Driving Interests for FRP

High strength

Durability

Low weight

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Eurocrete – Case Studies

ChalgroveFootbridge(1995/96)

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Eurocrete – Case Studies

Oslo Footbridge(1996/97)

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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US Department of Transportation

Sierrita de la Cruz Creek Bridge(2000)

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Research on FRP at Sheffield

Bond

Column Confinement

EBR

Flexure and Cracking

RC

Design Philosophy

Plate Bonding

Punching Shear

Shear Strengthening

Shear

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Sheffield Involvement in FRP Research

fib Task Group 9.3http://allserv.rug.ac.be/~smatthys/fibTG9.3

Eurocrete Project (94-97)

CurvedNFRCRAFT Eureka (03-05)http://www.curvednfr.com

EU TMR ConFibreCreteNetwork (97-02)http://www.shef.ac.uk/~tmrnet

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Required Bridge Research on FRP

  • Demonstration/monitoring projects

  • Design Guidelines

  • Whole-life costing studies

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Permanent Formwork

  • Permanent Formwork Systems

Pre-cast concrete

Heavy

Steel decking

Corrosion

Fire protection

Constant thickness

One way spanning

Need additional finishes

Omni-plank type

Crack in tension zone during casting

GRC

Low stiffness (tensile stress↓)

Small (1~2 m span) panels

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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GRC Permanent Formwork

Drainage

Architectural

  • Light self-weight

  • Easy to create complicatedshapes

  • Good Durability of the cover

  • Fast to install

  • Corrosion protection to thesteel reinforcement

Bridges

Tunnels

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Bridge Permanent Formwork

  • Combination of new materials

  • Development of integrated permanent formwork solutions

  • Solve the problem of formwork connections

  • Case studies

  • Design guidelines

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Steel Fibres Recycled from Waste Tyres

Tyre Recycling

Research Work

Shredded

Bending Tests

Bond Tests

Cube Tests

Design Rules

Pyrolysed

  • Bridge Applications:

  • Foundations

  • Decks

http://www.shef.ac.uk/tyre-recycling

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Masonry parapet research

  • EPSRC project (also involving Universities of Liverpool & Teesside) recently completed

  • Concerned with: (i) fundamental behaviour; (ii) developing reinforcement strategies

  • Key findings:

    • Typically failure via large-panel formation (resistance then due to inertia & base friction)

    • But very weakly mortared walls fail in loose block failure modes

    • Diagonal reinforcement effective (even when mortar bond v. weak)

    • Analysis tools now developed which can simulate behaviour in many cases

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Masonry parapet research:potential follow-on work

  • Do bridge owners wish to support follow-on developments?

    • Transformation of mechanism analysis research software into usable tool for practitioners

    • Update CSS guidance note and BS6779-4 to reflect our much improved understanding of how masonry parapet walls resist vehicle impacts

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Masonry parapet research:mechanism analysis software

  • Method (published in Int. J. Impact Eng, 2002) identifies critical mechanism from a library of possible ones:

  • Quick & easy to investigate the influence of different parameters

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Masonry parapet research: update to design codes

  • Original numerical modelling work which underpinned CSS document and BS6779-4 has now been significantly improved upon

  • Also potential for inclusion of more guidance on reinforcement strategies

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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RING1: Masonry arch bridge analysis software

  • Sophisticated masonry block modelling capability

  • Simple uncoupled backfill interaction model

1funded to date by Network Rail

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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h

passive

h=KPv

Example modified distributions

Current backfill interaction models

Lateral earth pressures based on modified Rankine theory

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Key Project Aims

  • Development of RING to include fully coupled modelling of soil and masonry elements

  • Develop optimised field investigation techniques for backfill characterisation

  • Calibrate on field, model and laboratory tests: load and kinematic data

Work sponsored by Essex County Council in collaboration with Mouchel Essex

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Image analysis provides soil displacement vectors

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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Additional aims:

  • Incorporate current geotechnical design code principles into assessment methodology

  • Develop soil and masonry reinforcement modelling capability in RING with automatic optimisation (sponsored by EPSRC)

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.


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For more information …

  • Dr Paul Reynolds

    • Tel: 0114 222 5074

    • p.reynolds@sheffield.ac.uk

  • Web sites:

    • http://vibration.shef.ac.uk/

    • http://www.shef.ac.uk/civil/

  • This presentation will be posted at:

    • http://vibration.shef.ac.uk/presentations/bridgeforum/

Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.