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Pre-Apprentice Training. A Test Preparation Manual for the Skilled Trades. The Authors. Jack Martin Experience includes:. Apprentice Plumber Apprentice Draftsman Classroom Teacher Vocational Counselor Director of Job Placement Vice President of Baker College

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slide1

Pre-Apprentice Training

A Test Preparation

Manual for the

Skilled Trades

slide2

The Authors

Jack Martin

Experience includes:

  • Apprentice Plumber
  • Apprentice Draftsman
  • Classroom Teacher
  • Vocational Counselor
  • Director of Job Placement
  • Vice President of Baker College
  • Labor Management Consultant

Currently:

President of Jack Martin & Associates

slide3

The Authors

Mary Serich: Teacher of Pre-Apprentice Training

  • Experience includes:
  • Delphi Skill Center Trainer
  • A. Computers
  • B. Blueprint Reading
  • C. Electronics
  • D. Math
  • E. Science
  • 2) Instructor for Train-the-Trainer certification
  • 3) B.A. in both Science and Math, M.A. in Technical Training
slide4

Presentation Goals

  • To understand the Apprenticeship system and how it works.
  • To learn the skills required to get an Apprenticeship.
  • To help students prepare for jobs in the skilled trades.
slide5

Definition

“Apprenticeship is a system of training that combines on the job and classroom learning in order to acquire Journeyperson status.”

slide6

Registered Apprenticeable Trades

"900"

According to the Department of Labor Office of Apprenticeship - 2007

slide7

Industrial Trades

  • Mold Maker
  • Pattern Maker
  • Pipefitter
  • Stationary Engineer
  • Sheet Metal Worker
  • Tin Smith
  • Tool Designer
  • Tool Maker
  • Welder
  • Auto/Truck Repair
  • Die Designer
  • Die Maker
  • Draftsman
  • Electrician
  • Machinist
  • Machine Repair
  • Millwright
  • Model Maker
slide8

Construction Trades

  • Iron Worker/Structural Steel
  • Millwright
  • Operating Engineer
  • Plasterer
  • Painter/Drywall Finisher
  • Plumber/Pipefitter
  • Refrigeration & Air Conditioning
  • Roofer/Waterproofer
  • Sheet Metal Worker
  • Sprinkler Fitter
  • Tile, Marble & Terrazzo Mason
  • Asbestos Worker
  • Boilermaker
  • Bricklayer
  • Carpet/Latherer/Floor Layer
  • Cement Mason
  • Construction Craft Laborer
  • Drywall Finisher
  • Electrician
  • Elevator Constructor
  • Glaziers/Glass Worker
slide9

History of Apprenticeship

  • The worlds second oldest profession
  • Code of Hammurabi
  • Benjamin Franklin
  • Keep it in the family
  • Women and minorities need not apply
  • National Apprenticeship law – 1937
  • The modern Apprentice
slide10

Preparation

Can you think of a skilled trade that does not require any math?

A - All trades require basic math skills

B - Some trades require advanced math

C - All trades require measurement skills

D - All trades require reading ability

slide11

Required Basic Math Skills

  • Addition
  • Subtraction
  • Multiplication
  • Division
  • Fractions
  • Decimals
slide12

Advanced Math Skills

  • Algebra
  • Geometry
  • Trigonometry
  • Graphic Math
slide13

Measurement Skills

  • Read a ruler in both English and Metric units
  • Convert from fraction measurements to decimal measurements and visa versa
  • Round off measurements accurately
slide14

Reading Skills

  • Reading comprehension for speed and accuracy
  • Technical reading for charts, graphs, estimates, work orders, purchase orders, blueprints and problem solving.
slide15
Shop Math

Algebra

Geometry

Drafting

Electronics

Machine Shop

Wood Shop

Computers

Welding

Auto Shop

Building Trades

STRA-School to registered Apprenticeship

Pre-Apprentice Training

Suggested High School Courses

slide16

Selection

I. Most trades require a High School Diploma or GED

II. At least 16 – 18 years old

III. Test (not all trades require a test)

A. Technical Reading

B. Basic Math

C. Algebra and Geometry

D. Mechanical Comprehension

E. Spatial Relations

IV. Some require drug testing

V. Some require a valid drivers license

VI. All use an interview process

slide17

Training

Apprenticeship – “The other four year degree”

  • Classroom / College credit
  • On-the –job / hands on
  • Usually taught by a skilled trades person
  • Monitored by the US Office of Apprenticeship
slide18

Wages

  • 50% to 75% of Journeypersons starting wage
  • $120,000 during Apprenticeship
  • Starting Journeyperson $45,000 to $65,000
  • With overtime up to $100,000
slide20

Journeyperson Status

  • Above average pay
  • Good job security
  • Job mobility
  • Career satisfaction
  • Possible self employment
  • Possible to own the company
slide21

History of Pre-Apprentice Training

  • 1964, Civil Rights legislation put pressure on
  • companies to improve their skilled trades
  • hiring practices.
  • 1968, Flint Michigan, fewer than 2% of all skilled trades
  • where females and people of color.
  • As result, there was a need to
  • provide entry level job training
  • and test preparation skills.
slide22

Preparing Minorities and Females Applicants for the Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

The Mott Adult Education program

of the Flint Community Schools

was asked to help prepare

minority and female applicants

for entry into the General Motors

apprenticeship program. Jack Martin was the program coordinator.

slide23

First Course Content

  • Used five different textbooks costing more than $75
  • per student. These books included:
  •  Basic Math
  •  Algebra
  •  Geometry
  •  Blueprint Reading
  •  Mechanical Comprehension
  • The students participated in forty-five hours of
  • classroom study.
slide24

First Class Results

  • Taught by journeyman machinist John Beach.
  • Class was limited to minorities and females.
  • Twenty-two students participated in the class and all

successfully completed the apprenticeship test battery

and interview process.

  • Of the original twenty-two, 17 became apprentices and

15 completed the apprenticeship program becoming

journeymen skilled trades workers.

  • Since this initial class, approximately 200,000 students

have successfully used the workbook.

slide25

Consolidated Workbook

  • In 1968, a workbook was written by Jack Martin and

John Beach consolidating all five subjects into one book.

  • Many instructors contributed to revising and improving

the content.

  • In 1993, Mary Serich did a complete revision and update

adding a lot of new content including:

    • 1. Reading speed and comprehension
    • 2. Ratios, proportions, and percents
    • 3. Graphic math
slide26

2005 Content

New Chapters Added by Mary Serich

  • How to Read a Ruler
  • Basic Electricity
  • Revised Mechanical Comprehension
  • Technical Reading
slide27

Chapter 1 The Apprenticeship System

  • Apprenticeship History
  • Career Development
  • Industrial Apprenticeship Programs
  • Construction Apprenticeship Programs
  • Related Classroom Instruction
  • How to Select an Apprenticeship
  • How to Apply for an Apprenticeship
  • How to Improve your Chances of Being Hired
slide28

Chapter 2 Whole Numbers

  • A review of basic math skills including :
  • Addition
  • Subtraction
  • Multiplication
  • Division
  • The emphasis is NOT on learning the
  • skills, but increasing speed and efficiency.
  • Most mistakes made on timed tests are in the basic
  • arithmetic. We tend to speed through the simple stuff. These careless simple mistakes can make the difference
  • between passing the test or not.
slide29

Whole Numbers Practice Test Answers

3) 800 x 9 =

a) 7200

b) 8100

c) 7400

d) none of the above

4) 40 ÷ 3 =

a) 13.13

b) 13.03

c) 13 1/3

d) none of the above

1) 2 + 8 + 5 + 7 + 2 + 1 =

a) 23

b) 24

c) 15

d) none of the above

2) 388 – 99 =

a) 287

b) 288

c) 289

d) none of the above

slide30

5) Reduce to lowest terms:

a) 34/38

b) 17/19

c) 5/3

d) none of the above

34

38

Chapter 3 Fractions and Decimals

Practice Test Answer

Fractions are a good example of, “If you don’t use it you lose it”.

slide31

Chapter 3 Fractions and Decimals

Practice Test Answer

6) Arrange the following socket wrenches in order from largest to smallest:

1/2 , 3/16 , 5/8 , 1/4

a) 5/8, 1/2, 1/4, 3/16

b) 3/16, 1/2, 5/8, 1/4

c) 1/2, 3/16, 5/8, 1/4

d) none of the above

slide32

Chapter 3 Fractions and Decimals

Practice Test Answer

25

32

5

8

7) Solve and reduce

a) 5/32

b) 5/8

c) 1 1/4

d) none of the above

slide33

Chapter 3 Fractions and Decimals

Practice Test Answer

8) Arrange these decimals in order from smallest to largest.

.76, .7, .076, .071

a) .76, .7, .076, .071

b) .7, .071, .076, .76

c) .071, .076, .7, .76

d) none of the above

Think of decimal numbers in terms of money (something we are very familiar with) and they make sense.

slide34

A

B

C

D

Chapter 4 Reading a Ruler English & Metric

Practice Test Answer

9) Write the English measurements indicated on the following diagram: (Reduce answers when possible)

A = 3/4" B = 1 5/16" C = 1 13/16" D = 2 5/8"

slide35

Chapter 4 Reading a Ruler continued

  • Chapter 4 also includes:
  • Reading Metric measurements
  • Solving problems with fraction measurements
    • A) Addition
    • B) Subtraction
    • C) Multiplication
    • D) Division
  • Calculation of dimensions on diagrams
slide36

Chapter 5 Ratios, Proportions & Percents

Practice Test Answer

Ratio

10) A local factory employs 50 salaried workers and 575 hourly workers. What is the ratio of salaried workers to the total number of workers in the plant?

575 Hourly + 50 Salaried = 625 Total employees

Salary: Total employees = 50:625 = 2:25

a) 2 : 25

b) 2 : 23

c) 1 : 75

d) none of the above

slide37

Proportion

11) A vehicle traveling at a rate of 110 miles in 2 hours will travel how many miles in 12 hours?

110 miles x miles 110 mi x 12 hr = 1320 mi hr 1320 mi hr ÷ 2 = 660 mi

2 hours 12 hours

Chapter 5 Ratios, Proportions & Percents

Practice Test Answer

a) 330 miles

b) 420 miles

c) 680 miles

d) none of the above

slide38

Chapter 5 Ratios, Proportions & Percents

Practice Test Answer

Percent

  • If daily production of a stamping plant is 136,000 parts and the average amount of scrap is 3%, how many bad parts are produced in one day?

Well, 1% of 136,000 is 1360, so 3 times 1360 is 4080.

3% of 136,000 = 4080 bad parts per day

a) 4080 bad parts

b) 408 bad parts

c) 4800 bad parts

d) none of the above

slide39

Chapter 6 Directed Numbers

Practice Test Answer

13) Solve and reduce

a) – 1/8

b) -1/4

c) -1/2

d) none of the above

+2

+16

-1

+2

slide40

Chapter 7 Algebra

Practice Test Answer

14) Solve for C: 4 + C = 10

a) 14

b) 4

c) 6

d) none of the above

slide41

3

dn

y

x

y

x

y

0 8

4 4

-1 9

x

Chapter 7 Algebra

Also Included in the Algebra Chapter:

1) Equations (solving for an unknown) :

n

4

2) Formulas:

n y

x d

3) Plotting points, graphing an equation:

Draw the graph of x + y = 8.

n =12

slide42

2a

Chapter 7 Algebra continued

  • Word Problems:
  • Approximately how many 12” x 12” tiles are required to cover a 10’ x 10’ floor?
  • 10’ x 10’ = 100 sqft
  • One 12” x 12” tile covers 1 sqft, so you need at least 100 tiles
  • Powers and roots:
  • 4a3b2
  • 2a2b2
  • Factoring equations and the FOIL method to solve trinomials:
  • multiply (5x – 2)(2x + 1) = 10x2 + x – 2
  • Solving number and letter sequences:
  • 7 – 8 – 22 – 9 – 10 – 21 – 11 – 12 –

9x2 3x

16 4

20

slide43

Chapter 7 Algebra

Practice Test Answer

15) Three consecutive numbers total 12. What is the lowest of the three numbers?

x + x + 1 + x + 2 = 12

3x + 3 = 12

3x = 9

x = 3

a) 3

b) 2

c) 6

d) none of the above

slide44

Chapter 7 Algebra

Practice Test Answer

16) Multiply: (y – z)(y + z)

a) 2y – 2z

b) y2 – z2

c) 2y+ 2z

d) none of the above

slide45

Chapter 7 Algebra

Practice Test Answer

17) What is the next number in the sequence?

25 – 100 – 300 – 600 – 600 - ____

a) 0

b) 1200

c) 800

d) none of the above

slide46

B

C

A

Chapter 8 Geometry

  • Contents include:
  • Definitions
  • Points, lines, and angles
  • Angles and Degrees
  • Polygons
  • Geometric Propositions

If < CAB = 45°

Find < CBA

< CBA = 45°

slide47

Chapter 9 Graphic Math

Use above drawing for questions 7 – 14. X is a bolt, Y and Z are nuts, and W is a washer.

Solve for dimension A. Solve for the area of the washer.

(a) 1.00 (a) 0.785

(b) 0.50 (b) 0.835

(c) 0.75 (c) 0.589

(d) 2.25 (d) 0.625

(e) none (e) none

slide48

Chapter 10 Spatial Skills

  • Orthographic projection
  • 3 view drawings
  • Surface identification
  • Rotated/Flipped timed test
  • Same object/ Different object timed test
  • Box folding and unfolding timed test
slide49

Chapter 10 Spatial Skills

Example of 3 view drawing

One of the views below is not complete, fill in the missing lines.

slide52

Chapter 11 Basic Electricity

Practice Test Answer

18) If bulb A burns out, which bulbs

will remain lit?

a) bulb C

b) bulbs B, C and D

c) bulb B

d) none

slide53

Chapter 11 Basic Electricity

  • Also Included in the Basic Electricity Chapter:
  • Electronic terminology
  • Series Circuits
  • Parallel Circuits
  • Ohm’s Law and dc Circuits
  • Simple Electrical Diagrams
slide54

Chapter 12 Mechanical Comprehension

  • Natural Physics
    • Forces and Motion – Force vectors,

and calculation of the resultant vector

    • Speed
    • Inertia
    • Gravity
    • Weight and Mass
    • Center of Gravity
    • Density
    • Acceleration
    • Action and Reaction
    • Fluid Power
slide55

Chapter 12 Mechanical Physics

  • Mechanical Physics
    • The Six Simple Machines
    • Calculation of Mechanical Advantage
  • The Law of Simple Machines
    • Pulleys
    • Gear Trains and Belt-Driven Pulleys
slide56

Chapter 13 Technical Reading

  • Timed reading tests, practice technical tests:
  • Construction Fasteners
  • Estimation of materials for rough framing a room
  • Quality Control Charts
  • Reading information from a line graph
slide57

Chapter 14 Test Taking Techniques

Tips to study and prepare for taking any timed test

slide58

Chapter 15 Apprentice Selection Interview

  • Preparing for the Interview
  • The Actual Interview
  • Anticipating Question During the Interview
  • Following Directions
slide59

Follow-up Studies

  • By 1973, five years after the initial class, minority and
  • female participation in the Flint area skill trades
  • increased from 2% to 18%.

2. Pre and Post Test Scores improved by more than 30%.

3. Other programs using this workbook continue to show

marked improvement in test scores.

4. Instructors using the workbook continue to give it

outstanding ratings for content and ease of use.

slide60

Examples of Organizations Using the Book

  • Adult Education Programs
  • Hard Hatted Women
  • CISCO
  • PSE&G
  • Urban League
  • Job Corp
  • School to Work Programs
  • Labor Unions
  • Indian Reservations
  • Community Colleges
  • Public Schools
  • Libraries
  • Canadian Schools
slide61

Benefits of Pre-Apprenticeship Training

  • Training opens the door to higher paying jobs.
  • People become more confident and lead better lives.
  • Teachers have the satisfaction of knowing they made a difference.
  • Provides each applicant with an equal opportunity for success.
slide62

Future Vision

  • Library placement expanded
  • Curriculum adaptation at the High School level
  • Career development promoted through High School counselors
  • Continue to support all apprenticeship applicants
slide63

Pre-Apprenticeship Training

“A workbook designed to help students prepare to pass entrance examinations for the skilled trades.”

Written by Jack Martin and Mary Serich

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