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Pre-Apprentice Training. A Test Preparation Manual for the Skilled Trades. The Authors. Jack Martin Experience includes:. Apprentice Plumber Apprentice Draftsman Classroom Teacher Vocational Counselor Director of Job Placement Vice President of Baker College

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Pre-Apprentice Training

A Test Preparation

Manual for the

Skilled Trades


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The Authors

Jack Martin

Experience includes:

  • Apprentice Plumber

  • Apprentice Draftsman

  • Classroom Teacher

  • Vocational Counselor

  • Director of Job Placement

  • Vice President of Baker College

  • Labor Management Consultant

Currently:

President of Jack Martin & Associates


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The Authors

Mary Serich: Teacher of Pre-Apprentice Training

  • Experience includes:

  • Delphi Skill Center Trainer

  • A. Computers

  • B. Blueprint Reading

  • C. Electronics

  • D. Math

  • E. Science

  • 2) Instructor for Train-the-Trainer certification

  • 3) B.A. in both Science and Math, M.A. in Technical Training


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Presentation Goals

  • To understand the Apprenticeship system and how it works.

  • To learn the skills required to get an Apprenticeship.

  • To help students prepare for jobs in the skilled trades.


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Definition

“Apprenticeship is a system of training that combines on the job and classroom learning in order to acquire Journeyperson status.”


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Registered Apprenticeable Trades

"900"

According to the Department of Labor Office of Apprenticeship - 2007


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Industrial Trades

  • Mold Maker

  • Pattern Maker

  • Pipefitter

  • Stationary Engineer

  • Sheet Metal Worker

  • Tin Smith

  • Tool Designer

  • Tool Maker

  • Welder

  • Auto/Truck Repair

  • Die Designer

  • Die Maker

  • Draftsman

  • Electrician

  • Machinist

  • Machine Repair

  • Millwright

  • Model Maker


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Construction Trades

  • Iron Worker/Structural Steel

  • Millwright

  • Operating Engineer

  • Plasterer

  • Painter/Drywall Finisher

  • Plumber/Pipefitter

  • Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

  • Roofer/Waterproofer

  • Sheet Metal Worker

  • Sprinkler Fitter

  • Tile, Marble & Terrazzo Mason

  • Asbestos Worker

  • Boilermaker

  • Bricklayer

  • Carpet/Latherer/Floor Layer

  • Cement Mason

  • Construction Craft Laborer

  • Drywall Finisher

  • Electrician

  • Elevator Constructor

  • Glaziers/Glass Worker


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History of Apprenticeship

  • The worlds second oldest profession

  • Code of Hammurabi

  • Benjamin Franklin

  • Keep it in the family

  • Women and minorities need not apply

  • National Apprenticeship law – 1937

  • The modern Apprentice


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Preparation

Can you think of a skilled trade that does not require any math?

A - All trades require basic math skills

B - Some trades require advanced math

C - All trades require measurement skills

D - All trades require reading ability


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Required Basic Math Skills

  • Addition

  • Subtraction

  • Multiplication

  • Division

  • Fractions

  • Decimals


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Advanced Math Skills

  • Algebra

  • Geometry

  • Trigonometry

  • Graphic Math


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Measurement Skills

  • Read a ruler in both English and Metric units

  • Convert from fraction measurements to decimal measurements and visa versa

  • Round off measurements accurately


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Reading Skills

  • Reading comprehension for speed and accuracy

  • Technical reading for charts, graphs, estimates, work orders, purchase orders, blueprints and problem solving.


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Shop Math

Algebra

Geometry

Drafting

Electronics

Machine Shop

Wood Shop

Computers

Welding

Auto Shop

Building Trades

STRA-School to registered Apprenticeship

Pre-Apprentice Training

Suggested High School Courses


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Selection

I. Most trades require a High School Diploma or GED

II. At least 16 – 18 years old

III. Test (not all trades require a test)

A. Technical Reading

B. Basic Math

C. Algebra and Geometry

D. Mechanical Comprehension

E. Spatial Relations

IV. Some require drug testing

V. Some require a valid drivers license

VI. All use an interview process


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Training

Apprenticeship – “The other four year degree”

  • Classroom / College credit

  • On-the –job / hands on

  • Usually taught by a skilled trades person

  • Monitored by the US Office of Apprenticeship


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Wages

  • 50% to 75% of Journeypersons starting wage

  • $120,000 during Apprenticeship

  • Starting Journeyperson $45,000 to $65,000

  • With overtime up to $100,000



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Journeyperson Status

  • Above average pay

  • Good job security

  • Job mobility

  • Career satisfaction

  • Possible self employment

  • Possible to own the company


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History of Pre-Apprentice Training

  • 1964, Civil Rights legislation put pressure on

  • companies to improve their skilled trades

  • hiring practices.

  • 1968, Flint Michigan, fewer than 2% of all skilled trades

  • where females and people of color.

  • As result, there was a need to

  • provide entry level job training

  • and test preparation skills.


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Preparing Minorities and Females Applicants for the Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

The Mott Adult Education program

of the Flint Community Schools

was asked to help prepare

minority and female applicants

for entry into the General Motors

apprenticeship program. Jack Martin was the program coordinator.


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First Course Content Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

  • Used five different textbooks costing more than $75

  • per student. These books included:

  •  Basic Math

  •  Algebra

  •  Geometry

  •  Blueprint Reading

  •  Mechanical Comprehension

  • The students participated in forty-five hours of

  • classroom study.


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First Class Results Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

  • Taught by journeyman machinist John Beach.

  • Class was limited to minorities and females.

  • Twenty-two students participated in the class and all

    successfully completed the apprenticeship test battery

    and interview process.

  • Of the original twenty-two, 17 became apprentices and

    15 completed the apprenticeship program becoming

    journeymen skilled trades workers.

  • Since this initial class, approximately 200,000 students

    have successfully used the workbook.


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Consolidated Workbook Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

  • In 1968, a workbook was written by Jack Martin and

    John Beach consolidating all five subjects into one book.

  • Many instructors contributed to revising and improving

    the content.

  • In 1993, Mary Serich did a complete revision and update

    adding a lot of new content including:

    • 1. Reading speed and comprehension

    • 2. Ratios, proportions, and percents

    • 3. Graphic math


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2005 Content Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

New Chapters Added by Mary Serich

  • How to Read a Ruler

  • Basic Electricity

  • Revised Mechanical Comprehension

  • Technical Reading


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Chapter 1 The Apprenticeship System Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

  • Apprenticeship History

  • Career Development

  • Industrial Apprenticeship Programs

  • Construction Apprenticeship Programs

  • Related Classroom Instruction

  • How to Select an Apprenticeship

  • How to Apply for an Apprenticeship

  • How to Improve your Chances of Being Hired


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Chapter 2 Whole Numbers Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

  • A review of basic math skills including :

  • Addition

  • Subtraction

  • Multiplication

  • Division

  • The emphasis is NOT on learning the

  • skills, but increasing speed and efficiency.

  • Most mistakes made on timed tests are in the basic

  • arithmetic. We tend to speed through the simple stuff. These careless simple mistakes can make the difference

  • between passing the test or not.


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Whole Numbers Practice Test Answers Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

3) 800 x 9 =

a) 7200

b) 8100

c) 7400

d) none of the above

4) 40 ÷ 3 =

a) 13.13

b) 13.03

c) 13 1/3

d) none of the above

1) 2 + 8 + 5 + 7 + 2 + 1 =

a) 23

b) 24

c) 15

d) none of the above

2) 388 – 99 =

a) 287

b) 288

c) 289

d) none of the above


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5) Reduce to lowest terms: Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

a) 34/38

b) 17/19

c) 5/3

d) none of the above

34

38

Chapter 3 Fractions and Decimals

Practice Test Answer

Fractions are a good example of, “If you don’t use it you lose it”.


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Chapter 3 Fractions and Decimals Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

Practice Test Answer

6) Arrange the following socket wrenches in order from largest to smallest:

1/2 , 3/16 , 5/8 , 1/4

a) 5/8, 1/2, 1/4, 3/16

b) 3/16, 1/2, 5/8, 1/4

c) 1/2, 3/16, 5/8, 1/4

d) none of the above


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Chapter 3 Fractions and Decimals Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

Practice Test Answer

25

32

5

8

7) Solve and reduce

a) 5/32

b) 5/8

c) 1 1/4

d) none of the above


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Chapter 3 Fractions and Decimals Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

Practice Test Answer

8) Arrange these decimals in order from smallest to largest.

.76, .7, .076, .071

a) .76, .7, .076, .071

b) .7, .071, .076, .76

c) .071, .076, .7, .76

d) none of the above

Think of decimal numbers in terms of money (something we are very familiar with) and they make sense.


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A Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

B

C

D

Chapter 4 Reading a Ruler English & Metric

Practice Test Answer

9) Write the English measurements indicated on the following diagram: (Reduce answers when possible)

A = 3/4" B = 1 5/16" C = 1 13/16" D = 2 5/8"


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Chapter 4 Reading a Ruler continued Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

  • Chapter 4 also includes:

  • Reading Metric measurements

  • Solving problems with fraction measurements

    • A) Addition

    • B) Subtraction

    • C) Multiplication

    • D) Division

  • Calculation of dimensions on diagrams


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Chapter 5 Ratios, Proportions & Percents Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

Practice Test Answer

Ratio

10) A local factory employs 50 salaried workers and 575 hourly workers. What is the ratio of salaried workers to the total number of workers in the plant?

575 Hourly + 50 Salaried = 625 Total employees

Salary: Total employees = 50:625 = 2:25

a) 2 : 25

b) 2 : 23

c) 1 : 75

d) none of the above


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Proportion Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

11) A vehicle traveling at a rate of 110 miles in 2 hours will travel how many miles in 12 hours?

110 miles x miles 110 mi x 12 hr = 1320 mi hr 1320 mi hr ÷ 2 = 660 mi

2 hours 12 hours

Chapter 5 Ratios, Proportions & Percents

Practice Test Answer

a) 330 miles

b) 420 miles

c) 680 miles

d) none of the above


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Chapter 5 Ratios, Proportions & Percents Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

Practice Test Answer

Percent

  • If daily production of a stamping plant is 136,000 parts and the average amount of scrap is 3%, how many bad parts are produced in one day?

    Well, 1% of 136,000 is 1360, so 3 times 1360 is 4080.

    3% of 136,000 = 4080 bad parts per day

a) 4080 bad parts

b) 408 bad parts

c) 4800 bad parts

d) none of the above


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Chapter 6 Directed Numbers Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

Practice Test Answer

13) Solve and reduce

a) – 1/8

b) -1/4

c) -1/2

d) none of the above

+2

+16

-1

+2


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Chapter 7 Algebra Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

Practice Test Answer

14) Solve for C: 4 + C = 10

a) 14

b) 4

c) 6

d) none of the above


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3 Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

dn

y

x

y

x

y

0 8

4 4

-1 9

x

Chapter 7 Algebra

Also Included in the Algebra Chapter:

1) Equations (solving for an unknown) :

n

4

2) Formulas:

n y

x d

3) Plotting points, graphing an equation:

Draw the graph of x + y = 8.

n =12


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2a Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

Chapter 7 Algebra continued

  • Word Problems:

  • Approximately how many 12” x 12” tiles are required to cover a 10’ x 10’ floor?

  • 10’ x 10’ = 100 sqft

  • One 12” x 12” tile covers 1 sqft, so you need at least 100 tiles

  • Powers and roots:

  • 4a3b2

  • 2a2b2

  • Factoring equations and the FOIL method to solve trinomials:

  • multiply (5x – 2)(2x + 1) = 10x2 + x – 2

  • Solving number and letter sequences:

  • 7 – 8 – 22 – 9 – 10 – 21 – 11 – 12 –

9x2 3x

16 4

20


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Chapter 7 Algebra Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

Practice Test Answer

15) Three consecutive numbers total 12. What is the lowest of the three numbers?

x + x + 1 + x + 2 = 12

3x + 3 = 12

3x = 9

x = 3

a) 3

b) 2

c) 6

d) none of the above


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Chapter 7 Algebra Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

Practice Test Answer

16) Multiply: (y – z)(y + z)

a) 2y – 2z

b) y2 – z2

c) 2y+ 2z

d) none of the above


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Chapter 7 Algebra Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

Practice Test Answer

17) What is the next number in the sequence?

25 – 100 – 300 – 600 – 600 - ____

a) 0

b) 1200

c) 800

d) none of the above


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B Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

C

A

Chapter 8 Geometry

  • Contents include:

  • Definitions

  • Points, lines, and angles

  • Angles and Degrees

  • Polygons

  • Geometric Propositions

If < CAB = 45°

Find < CBA

< CBA = 45°


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Chapter 9 Graphic Math Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

Use above drawing for questions 7 – 14. X is a bolt, Y and Z are nuts, and W is a washer.

Solve for dimension A. Solve for the area of the washer.

(a) 1.00 (a) 0.785

(b) 0.50 (b) 0.835

(c) 0.75 (c) 0.589

(d) 2.25 (d) 0.625

(e) none (e) none


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Chapter 10 Spatial Skills Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

  • Orthographic projection

  • 3 view drawings

  • Surface identification

  • Rotated/Flipped timed test

  • Same object/ Different object timed test

  • Box folding and unfolding timed test


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Chapter 10 Spatial Skills Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

Example of 3 view drawing

One of the views below is not complete, fill in the missing lines.


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Chapter 10 Spatial Skills Apprenticeship Entrance Exam


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Chapter 10 Spatial Skills Apprenticeship Entrance Exam


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Chapter 11 Apprenticeship Entrance ExamBasic Electricity

Practice Test Answer

18) If bulb A burns out, which bulbs

will remain lit?

a) bulb C

b) bulbs B, C and D

c) bulb B

d) none


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Chapter 11 Basic Electricity Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

  • Also Included in the Basic Electricity Chapter:

  • Electronic terminology

  • Series Circuits

  • Parallel Circuits

  • Ohm’s Law and dc Circuits

  • Simple Electrical Diagrams


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Chapter 12 Mechanical Comprehension Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

  • Natural Physics

    • Forces and Motion – Force vectors,

      and calculation of the resultant vector

    • Speed

    • Inertia

    • Gravity

    • Weight and Mass

    • Center of Gravity

    • Density

    • Acceleration

    • Action and Reaction

    • Fluid Power


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Chapter 12 Mechanical Physics Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

  • Mechanical Physics

    • The Six Simple Machines

    • Calculation of Mechanical Advantage

  • The Law of Simple Machines

    • Pulleys

    • Gear Trains and Belt-Driven Pulleys


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Chapter 13 Technical Reading Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

  • Timed reading tests, practice technical tests:

  • Construction Fasteners

  • Estimation of materials for rough framing a room

  • Quality Control Charts

  • Reading information from a line graph


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Chapter 14 Test Taking Techniques Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

Tips to study and prepare for taking any timed test


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Chapter 15 Apprentice Selection Interview Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

  • Preparing for the Interview

  • The Actual Interview

  • Anticipating Question During the Interview

  • Following Directions


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Follow-up Studies Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

  • By 1973, five years after the initial class, minority and

  • female participation in the Flint area skill trades

  • increased from 2% to 18%.

2. Pre and Post Test Scores improved by more than 30%.

3. Other programs using this workbook continue to show

marked improvement in test scores.

4. Instructors using the workbook continue to give it

outstanding ratings for content and ease of use.


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Examples of Organizations Using the Book Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

  • Adult Education Programs

  • Hard Hatted Women

  • CISCO

  • PSE&G

  • Urban League

  • Job Corp

  • School to Work Programs

  • Labor Unions

  • Indian Reservations

  • Community Colleges

  • Public Schools

  • Libraries

  • Canadian Schools


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Benefits of Pre-Apprenticeship Training Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

  • Training opens the door to higher paying jobs.

  • People become more confident and lead better lives.

  • Teachers have the satisfaction of knowing they made a difference.

  • Provides each applicant with an equal opportunity for success.


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Future Vision Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

  • Library placement expanded

  • Curriculum adaptation at the High School level

  • Career development promoted through High School counselors

  • Continue to support all apprenticeship applicants


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Pre-Apprenticeship Training Apprenticeship Entrance Exam

“A workbook designed to help students prepare to pass entrance examinations for the skilled trades.”

Written by Jack Martin and Mary Serich


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