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Introduction. Memphis marathon. =. +. NUTRITION FOR ATHLETES & ACTIVE INDIVIDUALS. Nutrition and Energy Link. Nutrition and Energy Link. Energy is stored as ATP ATP supply is limited Constant ‘recycling’ of ATP. Exercise. AEROBIC Walking Running Cycling Swimming. ANAEROBIC

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Introduction l.jpg
Introduction

  • Memphis marathon

=

+




Nutrition and energy link4 l.jpg
Nutrition and Energy Link

  • Energy is stored as ATP

  • ATP supply is limited

  • Constant ‘recycling’ of ATP

Exercise


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AEROBIC

Walking

Running

Cycling

Swimming

ANAEROBIC

Strength training

Sprinting

Throwing

Jumping

ENERGY SOURCES

Creatine

Carbohydrate

Carbohydrate

Fat

Protein


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PHOSPHOCREATINE

  • Phosphate – mineral

  • Creatine – amino acids

  • Stored inside muscle

  • 5-6 times more than ATP

  • Strength

  • 30 seconds


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Glucose and Glycogen

Anaerobic and Aerobic

Preferred fuel of the brain

Limited supply

2,000 calories

20 miles of running

2 hours of running

CARBOHYDRATES


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Fast twitch fibers

Lactic acid

Power

60 seconds

2 ATP

CARBOHYDRATES


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Slow twitch fibers

Less lactic acid

Greater than 2 minutes

Depletion after 90 to 120 minutes

Chronic depletion

36-38 ATP

5.0 calories per liter of oxygen

Fatigue

Hitting the wall

Bonking

CARBOHYDRATES


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HIGH INDEX (>70)

98 . . . . . . . . . . Potato, Russet, Baked

97 . . . . . . . . . . Parsnips

87 . . . . . . . . . . Honey

89 . . . . . . . . . . Sport drinks

72 . . . . . . . . . . Bagel

70 . . . . . . . . . . Potato, White

GLYCEMIC INDEX

MEDIUM INDEX (56-69)

69 . . . . . . . . . . White Bread

66 . . . . . . . . . . Brown Rice

64 . . . . . . . . . . Raisins

64 . . . . . . . . . . Beets

62 . . . . . . . . . . Bananas

60 . . . . . . . . .Soft Drinks

LOW INDEX (< 55)

34 . . . . . . . . . . Pears

29 . . . . . . . . . . Kidney Beans

26 . . . . . . . . . . Peaches

26 . . . . . . . . . . Grapefruit

25 . . . . . . . . . . Plums

23 . . . . . . . . . . Cherries

15 . . . . . . . . . . Soybeans


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FATS

  • Relative large store

    • 70,000 kcal (12% body fat)

  • More energy per gram

    • Fat = 9 kcals/gram

    • Carbs = 4 kcals/gram

  • Glycogen sparing effect

  • Slower fuel

    • 2 to 6 times slow than glycogen oxidation

  • Requires more oxygen


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5-10% energy during exercise

Gluconeogenesis

Glucose production

Muscle repair

PROTEIN


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SUMMARY

  • Carbohydrates for energy

  • Protein for muscle repair and growth




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CARBOHYDRATES

Competingwithandwithoutadequate carbohydrates


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PROTEIN

  • Protein is not a major source of energy

  • Active people need more protein than the RDA

  • However…

    • Most people already consume more than the RDA

    • Excess protein is stored as fat

    • High protein in the diet can cause dehydration and stress to the kidneys


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PROTEIN

  • RDA (average sedentary)

    • = 0.4 grams per pound (8% total calories)

    • = 0.8 grams/kilogram

  • Resistance training

    • = up to 0.8 g per pound (15% total calories)

    • = 1.8 g per kg per day

  • Endurance training

    • = up to 0.6 g per pound (10% total calories)

    • = 1.4 g per kg per day


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PROTEIN

No Growth

No Growth

Muscle Hypertrophy

Muscle Hypertrophy

Muscle Atrophy

Muscle Atrophy

Peaks are ~ 2 hours apart.


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PROTEIN

  • Protein should be consumed post-exercise to aid in muscle recovery and repair.

  • A small dose (0.1 g/kg) every 1-2 hours for 6 hours will promote a positive balance or anabolic state

    • Example: 170 lbs = 7.7 grams (~1 cup of milk)

    • Tuna, peanut butter, etc.

    • Adequate carbohydrate intake is needed to provided the energy for muscle repair and growth (4:1 ratio)


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ANAEROBIC ENERGY SUMMARY

  • Carbohydrate: The Energy King

    • Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains

  • Protein: Building and Repair

    • Diet

      • 1.4 - 1.8 grams per kilogram

      • 0.6 – 0.8 grams per pound

    • Post-exercise

      • 0.1 g/kg every 1-2 hours post-exercise



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CARBS

CARBS

FATS

INTENSITY

~ 60%

FATS

~ 2 hours

DURATION

CARBS v FATS


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CARBOHYDRATES

Energy

  • Muscles

  • Brain and Nerves

Concerns

  • Hypoglycemia

  • Hitting the wall or “bonking”


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CARBOHYDRATES

Simple(sugars)

Complex


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CARBOHYDRATES

  • IS THERE ENOUGH CARBOHYDRATE?

  • Total of 600-1500 kcals

    • Grains: 6-11 SERVINGS = 450-600 kcals

    • Vegies: 3-5 SERVINGS = 70-500 kcals

    • Fruit: 2-4 SERVINGS = 80-400 kcals

  • Active people may need up to 2000 kcals of carbohydrate or more.


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CARBOHYDRATES

  • Sedentary: 55-60% of total calories

    • Only 10 percent should be from sugar

  • Active: 60-70% of total calories

    • 3-5 grams per pound

    • ~600 grams (2,400 kcals) for 150 lb person

  • Note: 50 to 100 grams (200-400 kcals) per day to spare protein


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CARBS: BEFORE EXERCISE

  • CARBOHYDRATE LOADING

    • Increase carbohydrate intake to 70%

    • Taper workouts

  • Not necessary unless the activity will be longer than 90-120 minutes.

  • More beneficial in cyclists than runners

  • Water gain (3 grams H20 per gram of glycogen).


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Depletion exercise (optional)

Moderate carbs, taper (2-3 days)

High carbs, taper or no exercise (2-3 days)

Competition

CARBOHYDRATE LOADING


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CARBS: BEFORE EXERCISE

EXERCISE LESS THAN 1 HOUR

  • 1 hour before: 1g per pound of low glycemic CHO

    • High glycemic index – greater insulin response

    • Low glycemic index to avoid hypoglycemia during exercise


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CARBS: BEFORE EXECISE

EXERCISE LONGER THAN 1 HOUR

1- 4 hours before: high CHO meal

2 grams of carbohydrate per pound

Limit fat and protein intake

1 hour before: 1g per pound of low glycemic CHO

  • Avoid hypoglycemia

  • Optional: 50-60 grams of LGI CHO immediately before

    • Liquid form e.g. sport drink


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    CARBS: DURING EXERCISE

    • EXERCISE LESS THAN 1 HOUR

    • High carbohydrate pre-exercise meals

    • High CHO snack (bagel, banana, etc.) about 1 hour before exercise


    Carbs during exercise36 l.jpg
    CARBS: DURING EXERCISE

    • DISCONTINUOUS EXERCISE

    • High-carbohydrate, pre-exercise meals improve exercise capacity.

    • Sports drinks during exercise.

    • May need to consume >100 calories per hour

    • Sports drinks during prolonged exercise helps delay the deterioration in motor skills.


    Carbs during exercise37 l.jpg
    CARBS: DURING EXERCISE

    • EXERCISE LONGER THAN 1 HOUR

    • Drink or eat every 15-30 minutes during exercise or breaks

      • 30-60 grams per hour

      • 120-240 kcals per hour

    • High glycemic index CHO

      • Liquid

        • 8 ounces sport drink

          = 56-72 calories)

      • Solid

        • Energy gels = 100 calories

        • Candy

        • Fruit



    Carbs during exercise39 l.jpg
    CARBS: DURING EXERCISE

    Power output (intensity level) with and without carbohydrates during exercise


    Carbs during exercise40 l.jpg
    CARBS: DURING EXERCISE

    EFFECT OF LOW CARBOHYDRATE DIET ON PROTEIN


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    FATS DURING EXERCISE

    • Glycogen sparing


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    FAT BURNING SUPPLEMENTS

    • Caffeine

    • Chromium

    • Carnitine

    • Clenbuterol


    Caffeine l.jpg
    CAFFEINE

    1. Moderate doses of caffeine ingested 1 h prior to exercise enhance the performance of certain types of endurance exercise in the laboratory.

    2. Caffeine ingestion increases plasma free-fatty acid concentrations and muscle triglyceride use and spares muscle glycogen.

    3. Caffeine appears to enhance performance during short-term, intense cycling lasting ~5 min in the laboratory and in simulated 1500 m race time.

    4. Potential mechanisms for improving performance during intense exercise lasting 5-20 min include direct effects of caffeine on the central nervous system and/or excitation-contraction coupling and increased anaerobic energy provision in skeletal muscle.


    Chromium l.jpg
    CHROMIUM

    • Chromium is an essential trace mineral.

    • It has an extremely low gastrointestinal absorption rate, so supplement manufacturers have bound chromium with picolinate (CrPic) to increase the absorption and bioavailability.

    • Chromium seems to function as a co-factor that enhances the action of insulin.

    • Promoters of CrPic claim it increases glycogen synthesis, improves glucose tolerance and lipid profiles, and increases amino acid incorporation in muscle.


    Chromium45 l.jpg
    CHROMIUM

    • Early researchers demonstrated anabolic-steroid-like effects with dosages of 200 mg/day.

    • More recent studies failed to demonstrate any significant improvement in percent body fat, lean body mass, or strength.

    • Most studies of CrPic supplementation reveal no side effects except gastrointestinal intolerance with dosages of 50 to 200 micrograms/day for less than 1 month.

    • The use of chromium picolinate supplementation as an ergogenic aid should be strongly discouraged.


    Carnitine l.jpg
    CARNITINE

    • Carnitine: found in meats and dairy products and synthesized from lysine and methionine.

    • Theory: Increases free fatty acid transport across mitochondrial membranes, carnitine may increase fatty acid oxidation and utilization for energy.

    • Early studies showed an ergogenic effect.


    Carnitine47 l.jpg
    CARNITINE

    • A more controlled study by Vuchovich et al failed to demonstrate any glycogen-sparing effect or reductions in lactate levels while supplementing with 6 g/day of L-carnitine.

    • Finally, many currently available supplements actually contain D-carnitine, which is physiologically inactive in humans but may cause significant muscle weakness through mechanisms that deplete L-carnitine in tissues.

    • Carnitine should not be advocated as an ergogenic supplement.


    Carbs after exercise l.jpg
    CARBS: AFTER EXERCISE

    • NEEDS

      • Replace glycogen in muscles and liver

      • Protein for muscle repair


    Carbs after exercise49 l.jpg
    CARBS: AFTER EXERCISE

    Competingwithandwithoutadequate carbohydrates during recovery


    After exercise l.jpg
    AFTER EXERCISE

    • CARBOHYDRATES & PROTEIN

    • A total of 50-100 grams of CHO and 10-20 grams of protein.

    • Repeated with a ~4:1 ratio of CHO & protein every 1-2 hours until next meal


    Aerobic energy summary l.jpg
    AEROBIC ENERGY SUMMARY

    • High carbohydrate intake before exercise

    • 120-240 kcals per hour if exercise longer than 60 minutes

    • 4:1 ratio of carbohydrate and protein every 1-2 hours after exercise


    Fluids l.jpg
    FLUIDS

    Water, Sugar, & Electrolytes


    Before execise l.jpg
    BEFORE EXECISE

    • Get hydrated

      • Drink extra fluids the day before

      • 16-24 ounces, 2 hours before exercise

      • 8-16 ounces 5-10 minutes before

    • Know your stomach

      • Try new fluids/foods during the off-season or with training workouts


    During exercise l.jpg
    DURING EXERCISE

    • Needs from fluids:

      • Water to off-set dehydration

      • Energy, if exercise longer than 1 hour

      • Electrolytes, if exercising in hot, humid conditions


    Fluids55 l.jpg
    FLUIDS

    • WATER

    • Sweat rates of 1-2 liters per hour

    • Maximal absorption of fluids is less than maximal sweat rates

    • Therefore, high sweat rates lead to dehydration (lose 2-5 lbs per hour)

      • Fatigue

      • Hyperthermia



    Fluids57 l.jpg
    FLUIDS

    • ENERGY(sugar)

      • Most sport drinks contain some form of sugar (sucrose, glucose, corn syrup, polymers, etc.)

      • Recommendation: 6-8% solution of sugar

    • No difference in the effectiveness of different sugars


    Fluids58 l.jpg
    FLUIDS

    • ELECTROLYTES

      • Na, Cl, & K but sweat also contains traces of amino acids, HCO3, CO2, Cu, glucose, hormones, Fe, lactic acid, Mg, N, PO4, urea, vitamins and Zn.

    • Sodiumis the only one that may possibly need to be replaced during exercise


    Fluids59 l.jpg
    FLUIDS

    • OTHER INGREDIENTS

    • Vitamins

    • Minerals

    • Caffeine

    • Herbs

    • etc


    Fluids60 l.jpg
    FLUIDS

    • WATER v. SPORT DRINKS

    • Water. Yes, especially in hot, humid conditions.

    • Energy (sugar). If exercise is longer than 60 min.

    • Electrolytes. Sodium if hot, humid conditions.


    Fluids61 l.jpg
    FLUIDS

    COMMON SPORTS DRINKS


    Fluids summary l.jpg

    Before Exercise

    12-20 oz 2 hours before

    During Exercise

    8-12 oz every 15-20 minutes

    Sports Drink?

    > 60 minutes

    Hot, humid conditions

    After Exercise

    Replace fluids

    16-24 ounces per pound lost.

    Sodium

    FLUIDS SUMMARY


    Fluids63 l.jpg
    FLUIDS

    • OTHER RECOMMENDATIONS

    • Cool, 59-72° F

    • Don’t wait until thirsty.

    • Non-carbonated

    • Avoid caffeine (?)


    Vitamins l.jpg
    VITAMINS

    Do active people need extra vitamins?

    • B complex:

      • Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin,

      • Pyridoxine (B6), Pantothenic acid, Folate,

      • B12, and Biotin

    • Antioxidants: A, C, E

      • Fight free-radicals from aerobic energy production.


    Minerals l.jpg
    MINERALS

    Do active people need extra minerals?

    • Women

      • Calcium

      • Iron

    • Hot humid conditions

      • Sodium


    Vitamin and mineral supplements l.jpg
    VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS

    What you don’t get.

    • Fiber

    • Phytochemicals

      • Allium (garlic)

      • Capsaicin (hot peppers)

      • Isoflavens (soybeans

      • Polyphenols (grapes)

        Also, varying bioactivity

    Here?

    Here?


    Hyponatremia l.jpg
    HYPONATREMIA

    • Low blood sodium a.k.a. “water intoxication”

    • Caused by drinking large quantities of water during events longer than 4 hours

    • Na lost in sweat and remaining Na becomes diluted due to large water intake

    • Can be lethal - cerebral edema.


    Energy drinks l.jpg
    ENERGY DRINKS

    • GATORADE SPORT SCIENCE EXCHANGE

      • "ENERGY" DRINKS: HELP, HARM OR HYPE?”

    • Many products marketed as energy drinks contain high concentrations of carbohydrate and some caffeine.

    • Some energy drinks contain herbs, amino acids, protein, and other substances, usually in such small amounts that they are unlikely to have any noticeable effect on performance.

    • The content of some of these products may result in inefficient absorption of fluid and nutrients from the intestine, with the possibility of gastrointestinal distress.

    • Many energy drinks are quite costly and, because of their composition, are not suitable for use by athletes.

    • Athletes should be educated about these products and guided towards other foods and fluids that will not pose potential risks.


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    CAFFEINE

    GATORADE SPORTS SCIENCE EXCHANGE

    “CAFFEINE AND EXERCISE PERFORMANCE”

    • Caffeine appears to enhance performance during short-term, intense cycling lasting ~5 min in the laboratory and in simulated 1500 m race time.

    • However, positive ergogenic effects of caffeine are much less frequent during sprint exercise lasting less than 90 s and in incremental exercise tests lasting 8-20 min.

      (continue)


    Caffeine71 l.jpg
    CAFFEINE

    • Moderate doses of caffeine (6 mg/kg body weight) ingested 1 h prior to exercise enhance endurance exercise.

    • Increases plasma free-fatty acid concentrations and muscle triglyceride use and spares muscle glycogen.

    • Diuretic factor

      • Caffeinated diet-cola retains 50-60%

      • Water = 60-70%

      • Sport drink = 65-75%


    Conclusions l.jpg
    CONCLUSIONS

    • Active people require a diet high in carbohydrate.

      • Low carb diets (e.g. Atkins diet) are not designed for active people.

    • Most healthy food guides are also high in carbohydrates and very compatible with the needs of active people.

    • However, active people should focus on low glycemic index carbs (fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) for meals and snacks between workouts

    • When needed, high glycemic index carbs (sugars) should be consumed during exercise and in the few hours after exercise.


    References l.jpg
    References

    • Nutrition Data

      • www.nutritiondata.com

    • Nutrition Analysis Tools and System

      • nat.crgq.com

    • Gatorade Sports Science Institute

      • www.gssiweb.com


    References81 l.jpg

    THE PHYSICIAN AND SPORTSMEDICINE

    www.physsportsmed.com/personal.htm

    AUSTRALIAN SPORTS COMMISSION

    http://www.ais.org.au/nutrition/

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION

    http://www.ajcn.org/

    GATORADE SPORTS SCIENCE INSTITUTE

    http://www.gssiweb.com

    PENN STATE

    http://nirc.cas.psu.edu/fitness.cfm

    UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS

    http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/hsnut/

    NUTRITION ANALYSIS

    http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~food-lab/nat/

    UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA

    http://btc.montana.edu/olympics/nutrition/default.htm

    FOOD AND NUTRITION INFORMATION CENTER

    http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/etext/000054.html

    SPORTS COACH

    http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/nutrit.htm

    NCAA

    http://www.drugfreesport.com/choices/supplements/nut-gen.html

    NUITRITION ACTION NEWSLETTER

    http://www.cspinet.org/nah/index.htm

    BLONZ

    http://blonz.com/

    References


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    References

    • Nancy Clark’s Sports Nutrition Guidebook (Human Kinetics)

    • Nutrition for Health, Fitness and Sport. Melvin Williams (WCB McGraw-Hill)


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    References

    • Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

      • Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 32(12):2130-2145, December 2000.

    • ACSM Position Stand: Exercise and Fluid Replacement.

      • Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 28(10):i-ix, October 1996.

    • Role of Dietary Supplements for Physically Active People

      • American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Vol. 72, No. 2., Aug 2000.


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