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Introduction. Memphis marathon. =. +. NUTRITION FOR ATHLETES & ACTIVE INDIVIDUALS. Nutrition and Energy Link. Nutrition and Energy Link. Energy is stored as ATP ATP supply is limited Constant ‘recycling’ of ATP. Exercise. AEROBIC Walking Running Cycling Swimming. ANAEROBIC

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introduction
Introduction
  • Memphis marathon

=

+

nutrition and energy link4
Nutrition and Energy Link
  • Energy is stored as ATP
  • ATP supply is limited
  • Constant ‘recycling’ of ATP

Exercise

energy sources
AEROBIC

Walking

Running

Cycling

Swimming

ANAEROBIC

Strength training

Sprinting

Throwing

Jumping

ENERGY SOURCES

Creatine

Carbohydrate

Carbohydrate

Fat

Protein

slide6

PHOSPHOCREATINE

  • Phosphate – mineral
  • Creatine – amino acids
  • Stored inside muscle
  • 5-6 times more than ATP
  • Strength
  • 30 seconds
carbohydrates
Glucose and Glycogen

Anaerobic and Aerobic

Preferred fuel of the brain

Limited supply

2,000 calories

20 miles of running

2 hours of running

CARBOHYDRATES
carbohydrates8
Fast twitch fibers

Lactic acid

Power

60 seconds

2 ATP

CARBOHYDRATES
carbohydrates9
Slow twitch fibers

Less lactic acid

Greater than 2 minutes

Depletion after 90 to 120 minutes

Chronic depletion

36-38 ATP

5.0 calories per liter of oxygen

Fatigue

Hitting the wall

Bonking

CARBOHYDRATES
glycemic index
HIGH INDEX (>70)

98 . . . . . . . . . . Potato, Russet, Baked

97 . . . . . . . . . . Parsnips

87 . . . . . . . . . . Honey

89 . . . . . . . . . . Sport drinks

72 . . . . . . . . . . Bagel

70 . . . . . . . . . . Potato, White

GLYCEMIC INDEX

MEDIUM INDEX (56-69)

69 . . . . . . . . . . White Bread

66 . . . . . . . . . . Brown Rice

64 . . . . . . . . . . Raisins

64 . . . . . . . . . . Beets

62 . . . . . . . . . . Bananas

60 . . . . . . . . .Soft Drinks

LOW INDEX (< 55)

34 . . . . . . . . . . Pears

29 . . . . . . . . . . Kidney Beans

26 . . . . . . . . . . Peaches

26 . . . . . . . . . . Grapefruit

25 . . . . . . . . . . Plums

23 . . . . . . . . . . Cherries

15 . . . . . . . . . . Soybeans

slide12
FATS
  • Relative large store
    • 70,000 kcal (12% body fat)
  • More energy per gram
    • Fat = 9 kcals/gram
    • Carbs = 4 kcals/gram
  • Glycogen sparing effect
  • Slower fuel
    • 2 to 6 times slow than glycogen oxidation
  • Requires more oxygen
protein
5-10% energy during exercise

Gluconeogenesis

Glucose production

Muscle repair

PROTEIN
summary
SUMMARY
  • Carbohydrates for energy
  • Protein for muscle repair and growth
carbohydrates18
CARBOHYDRATES

Competingwithandwithoutadequate carbohydrates

protein19
PROTEIN
  • Protein is not a major source of energy
  • Active people need more protein than the RDA
  • However…
    • Most people already consume more than the RDA
    • Excess protein is stored as fat
    • High protein in the diet can cause dehydration and stress to the kidneys
protein20
PROTEIN
  • RDA (average sedentary)
    • = 0.4 grams per pound (8% total calories)
    • = 0.8 grams/kilogram
  • Resistance training
    • = up to 0.8 g per pound (15% total calories)
    • = 1.8 g per kg per day
  • Endurance training
    • = up to 0.6 g per pound (10% total calories)
    • = 1.4 g per kg per day
protein21
PROTEIN

No Growth

No Growth

Muscle Hypertrophy

Muscle Hypertrophy

Muscle Atrophy

Muscle Atrophy

Peaks are ~ 2 hours apart.

protein22
PROTEIN
  • Protein should be consumed post-exercise to aid in muscle recovery and repair.
  • A small dose (0.1 g/kg) every 1-2 hours for 6 hours will promote a positive balance or anabolic state
    • Example: 170 lbs = 7.7 grams (~1 cup of milk)
    • Tuna, peanut butter, etc.
    • Adequate carbohydrate intake is needed to provided the energy for muscle repair and growth (4:1 ratio)
anaerobic energy summary
ANAEROBIC ENERGY SUMMARY
  • Carbohydrate: The Energy King
    • Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains
  • Protein: Building and Repair
    • Diet
      • 1.4 - 1.8 grams per kilogram
      • 0.6 – 0.8 grams per pound
    • Post-exercise
      • 0.1 g/kg every 1-2 hours post-exercise
carbs v fats

CARBS

CARBS

FATS

INTENSITY

~ 60%

FATS

~ 2 hours

DURATION

CARBS v FATS
carbohydrates26
CARBOHYDRATES

Energy

  • Muscles
  • Brain and Nerves

Concerns

  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hitting the wall or “bonking”
carbohydrates27
CARBOHYDRATES

Simple(sugars)

Complex

carbohydrates28
CARBOHYDRATES
  • IS THERE ENOUGH CARBOHYDRATE?
  • Total of 600-1500 kcals
    • Grains: 6-11 SERVINGS = 450-600 kcals
    • Vegies: 3-5 SERVINGS = 70-500 kcals
    • Fruit: 2-4 SERVINGS = 80-400 kcals
  • Active people may need up to 2000 kcals of carbohydrate or more.
carbohydrates29
CARBOHYDRATES
  • Sedentary: 55-60% of total calories
    • Only 10 percent should be from sugar
  • Active: 60-70% of total calories
    • 3-5 grams per pound
    • ~600 grams (2,400 kcals) for 150 lb person
  • Note: 50 to 100 grams (200-400 kcals) per day to spare protein
carbs before exercise
CARBS: BEFORE EXERCISE
  • CARBOHYDRATE LOADING
    • Increase carbohydrate intake to 70%
    • Taper workouts
  • Not necessary unless the activity will be longer than 90-120 minutes.
  • More beneficial in cyclists than runners
  • Water gain (3 grams H20 per gram of glycogen).
carbohydrate loading
Depletion exercise (optional)

Moderate carbs, taper (2-3 days)

High carbs, taper or no exercise (2-3 days)

Competition

CARBOHYDRATE LOADING
carbs before exercise32
CARBS: BEFORE EXERCISE

EXERCISE LESS THAN 1 HOUR

  • 1 hour before: 1g per pound of low glycemic CHO
    • High glycemic index – greater insulin response
    • Low glycemic index to avoid hypoglycemia during exercise
carbs before execise
CARBS: BEFORE EXECISE

EXERCISE LONGER THAN 1 HOUR

1- 4 hours before: high CHO meal

2 grams of carbohydrate per pound

Limit fat and protein intake

1 hour before: 1g per pound of low glycemic CHO

    • Avoid hypoglycemia
  • Optional: 50-60 grams of LGI CHO immediately before
    • Liquid form e.g. sport drink
carbs during exercise
CARBS: DURING EXERCISE
  • EXERCISE LESS THAN 1 HOUR
  • High carbohydrate pre-exercise meals
  • High CHO snack (bagel, banana, etc.) about 1 hour before exercise
carbs during exercise36
CARBS: DURING EXERCISE
  • DISCONTINUOUS EXERCISE
  • High-carbohydrate, pre-exercise meals improve exercise capacity.
  • Sports drinks during exercise.
  • May need to consume >100 calories per hour
  • Sports drinks during prolonged exercise helps delay the deterioration in motor skills.
carbs during exercise37
CARBS: DURING EXERCISE
  • EXERCISE LONGER THAN 1 HOUR
  • Drink or eat every 15-30 minutes during exercise or breaks
    • 30-60 grams per hour
    • 120-240 kcals per hour
  • High glycemic index CHO
    • Liquid
      • 8 ounces sport drink

= 56-72 calories)

    • Solid
      • Energy gels = 100 calories
      • Candy
      • Fruit
carbs during exercise39
CARBS: DURING EXERCISE

Power output (intensity level) with and without carbohydrates during exercise

carbs during exercise40
CARBS: DURING EXERCISE

EFFECT OF LOW CARBOHYDRATE DIET ON PROTEIN

fats during exercise
FATS DURING EXERCISE
  • Glycogen sparing
fat burning supplements
FAT BURNING SUPPLEMENTS
  • Caffeine
  • Chromium
  • Carnitine
  • Clenbuterol
caffeine
CAFFEINE

1. Moderate doses of caffeine ingested 1 h prior to exercise enhance the performance of certain types of endurance exercise in the laboratory.

2. Caffeine ingestion increases plasma free-fatty acid concentrations and muscle triglyceride use and spares muscle glycogen.

3. Caffeine appears to enhance performance during short-term, intense cycling lasting ~5 min in the laboratory and in simulated 1500 m race time.

4. Potential mechanisms for improving performance during intense exercise lasting 5-20 min include direct effects of caffeine on the central nervous system and/or excitation-contraction coupling and increased anaerobic energy provision in skeletal muscle.

chromium
CHROMIUM
  • Chromium is an essential trace mineral.
  • It has an extremely low gastrointestinal absorption rate, so supplement manufacturers have bound chromium with picolinate (CrPic) to increase the absorption and bioavailability.
  • Chromium seems to function as a co-factor that enhances the action of insulin.
  • Promoters of CrPic claim it increases glycogen synthesis, improves glucose tolerance and lipid profiles, and increases amino acid incorporation in muscle.
chromium45
CHROMIUM
  • Early researchers demonstrated anabolic-steroid-like effects with dosages of 200 mg/day.
  • More recent studies failed to demonstrate any significant improvement in percent body fat, lean body mass, or strength.
  • Most studies of CrPic supplementation reveal no side effects except gastrointestinal intolerance with dosages of 50 to 200 micrograms/day for less than 1 month.
  • The use of chromium picolinate supplementation as an ergogenic aid should be strongly discouraged.
carnitine
CARNITINE
  • Carnitine: found in meats and dairy products and synthesized from lysine and methionine.
  • Theory: Increases free fatty acid transport across mitochondrial membranes, carnitine may increase fatty acid oxidation and utilization for energy.
  • Early studies showed an ergogenic effect.
carnitine47
CARNITINE
  • A more controlled study by Vuchovich et al failed to demonstrate any glycogen-sparing effect or reductions in lactate levels while supplementing with 6 g/day of L-carnitine.
  • Finally, many currently available supplements actually contain D-carnitine, which is physiologically inactive in humans but may cause significant muscle weakness through mechanisms that deplete L-carnitine in tissues.
  • Carnitine should not be advocated as an ergogenic supplement.
carbs after exercise
CARBS: AFTER EXERCISE
  • NEEDS
    • Replace glycogen in muscles and liver
    • Protein for muscle repair
carbs after exercise49
CARBS: AFTER EXERCISE

Competingwithandwithoutadequate carbohydrates during recovery

after exercise
AFTER EXERCISE
  • CARBOHYDRATES & PROTEIN
  • A total of 50-100 grams of CHO and 10-20 grams of protein.
  • Repeated with a ~4:1 ratio of CHO & protein every 1-2 hours until next meal
aerobic energy summary
AEROBIC ENERGY SUMMARY
  • High carbohydrate intake before exercise
  • 120-240 kcals per hour if exercise longer than 60 minutes
  • 4:1 ratio of carbohydrate and protein every 1-2 hours after exercise
fluids
FLUIDS

Water, Sugar, & Electrolytes

before execise
BEFORE EXECISE
  • Get hydrated
    • Drink extra fluids the day before
    • 16-24 ounces, 2 hours before exercise
    • 8-16 ounces 5-10 minutes before
  • Know your stomach
    • Try new fluids/foods during the off-season or with training workouts
during exercise
DURING EXERCISE
  • Needs from fluids:
    • Water to off-set dehydration
    • Energy, if exercise longer than 1 hour
    • Electrolytes, if exercising in hot, humid conditions
fluids55
FLUIDS
  • WATER
  • Sweat rates of 1-2 liters per hour
  • Maximal absorption of fluids is less than maximal sweat rates
  • Therefore, high sweat rates lead to dehydration (lose 2-5 lbs per hour)
    • Fatigue
    • Hyperthermia
fluids57
FLUIDS
  • ENERGY(sugar)
    • Most sport drinks contain some form of sugar (sucrose, glucose, corn syrup, polymers, etc.)
    • Recommendation: 6-8% solution of sugar
  • No difference in the effectiveness of different sugars
fluids58
FLUIDS
  • ELECTROLYTES
    • Na, Cl, & K but sweat also contains traces of amino acids, HCO3, CO2, Cu, glucose, hormones, Fe, lactic acid, Mg, N, PO4, urea, vitamins and Zn.
  • Sodiumis the only one that may possibly need to be replaced during exercise
fluids59
FLUIDS
  • OTHER INGREDIENTS
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Caffeine
  • Herbs
  • etc
fluids60
FLUIDS
  • WATER v. SPORT DRINKS
  • Water. Yes, especially in hot, humid conditions.
  • Energy (sugar). If exercise is longer than 60 min.
  • Electrolytes. Sodium if hot, humid conditions.
fluids61
FLUIDS

COMMON SPORTS DRINKS

fluids summary
Before Exercise

12-20 oz 2 hours before

During Exercise

8-12 oz every 15-20 minutes

Sports Drink?

> 60 minutes

Hot, humid conditions

After Exercise

Replace fluids

16-24 ounces per pound lost.

Sodium

FLUIDS SUMMARY
fluids63
FLUIDS
  • OTHER RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Cool, 59-72° F
  • Don’t wait until thirsty.
  • Non-carbonated
  • Avoid caffeine (?)
vitamins
VITAMINS

Do active people need extra vitamins?

  • B complex:
    • Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin,
    • Pyridoxine (B6), Pantothenic acid, Folate,
    • B12, and Biotin
  • Antioxidants: A, C, E
    • Fight free-radicals from aerobic energy production.
minerals
MINERALS

Do active people need extra minerals?

  • Women
    • Calcium
    • Iron
  • Hot humid conditions
    • Sodium
vitamin and mineral supplements
VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS

What you don’t get.

  • Fiber
  • Phytochemicals
    • Allium (garlic)
    • Capsaicin (hot peppers)
    • Isoflavens (soybeans
    • Polyphenols (grapes)

Also, varying bioactivity

Here?

Here?

hyponatremia
HYPONATREMIA
  • Low blood sodium a.k.a. “water intoxication”
  • Caused by drinking large quantities of water during events longer than 4 hours
  • Na lost in sweat and remaining Na becomes diluted due to large water intake
  • Can be lethal - cerebral edema.
energy drinks
ENERGY DRINKS
  • GATORADE SPORT SCIENCE EXCHANGE
    • "ENERGY" DRINKS: HELP, HARM OR HYPE?”
  • Many products marketed as energy drinks contain high concentrations of carbohydrate and some caffeine.
  • Some energy drinks contain herbs, amino acids, protein, and other substances, usually in such small amounts that they are unlikely to have any noticeable effect on performance.
  • The content of some of these products may result in inefficient absorption of fluid and nutrients from the intestine, with the possibility of gastrointestinal distress.
  • Many energy drinks are quite costly and, because of their composition, are not suitable for use by athletes.
  • Athletes should be educated about these products and guided towards other foods and fluids that will not pose potential risks.
caffeine70
CAFFEINE

GATORADE SPORTS SCIENCE EXCHANGE

“CAFFEINE AND EXERCISE PERFORMANCE”

  • Caffeine appears to enhance performance during short-term, intense cycling lasting ~5 min in the laboratory and in simulated 1500 m race time.
  • However, positive ergogenic effects of caffeine are much less frequent during sprint exercise lasting less than 90 s and in incremental exercise tests lasting 8-20 min.

(continue)

caffeine71
CAFFEINE
  • Moderate doses of caffeine (6 mg/kg body weight) ingested 1 h prior to exercise enhance endurance exercise.
  • Increases plasma free-fatty acid concentrations and muscle triglyceride use and spares muscle glycogen.
  • Diuretic factor
    • Caffeinated diet-cola retains 50-60%
    • Water = 60-70%
    • Sport drink = 65-75%
conclusions
CONCLUSIONS
  • Active people require a diet high in carbohydrate.
    • Low carb diets (e.g. Atkins diet) are not designed for active people.
  • Most healthy food guides are also high in carbohydrates and very compatible with the needs of active people.
  • However, active people should focus on low glycemic index carbs (fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) for meals and snacks between workouts
  • When needed, high glycemic index carbs (sugars) should be consumed during exercise and in the few hours after exercise.
references
References
  • Nutrition Data
    • www.nutritiondata.com
  • Nutrition Analysis Tools and System
    • nat.crgq.com
  • Gatorade Sports Science Institute
    • www.gssiweb.com
references81
THE PHYSICIAN AND SPORTSMEDICINE

www.physsportsmed.com/personal.htm

AUSTRALIAN SPORTS COMMISSION

http://www.ais.org.au/nutrition/

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION

http://www.ajcn.org/

GATORADE SPORTS SCIENCE INSTITUTE

http://www.gssiweb.com

PENN STATE

http://nirc.cas.psu.edu/fitness.cfm

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS

http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/hsnut/

NUTRITION ANALYSIS

http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~food-lab/nat/

UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA

http://btc.montana.edu/olympics/nutrition/default.htm

FOOD AND NUTRITION INFORMATION CENTER

http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/etext/000054.html

SPORTS COACH

http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/nutrit.htm

NCAA

http://www.drugfreesport.com/choices/supplements/nut-gen.html

NUITRITION ACTION NEWSLETTER

http://www.cspinet.org/nah/index.htm

BLONZ

http://blonz.com/

References
references82
References
  • Nancy Clark’s Sports Nutrition Guidebook (Human Kinetics)
  • Nutrition for Health, Fitness and Sport. Melvin Williams (WCB McGraw-Hill)
references83
References
  • Nutrition and Athletic Performance.
    • Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 32(12):2130-2145, December 2000.
  • ACSM Position Stand: Exercise and Fluid Replacement.
    • Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 28(10):i-ix, October 1996.
  • Role of Dietary Supplements for Physically Active People
    • American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Vol. 72, No. 2., Aug 2000.
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